The fourth principal source of Islamic law as agreed by scholars to be a rational tool for deducing the ruling of fiqh is qiyas (analogical reasoning). Literally, qiyas means, "measuring or ascertaining the length, weight or quality of something". Technically, it is defined as the extension of a Shari'ah value from the original case, or asl, to a new case, because the latter has the same effective cause ('illah) as the former. The original case is ruled by the text either from Qur'an or Sunnah and qiyas aims to extend the same ruling to the new case based on the shared 'illah. Being an extention of the existing law. qiyas discovers and develops the existing law but does not create a new law. In fact, it widens the application of law contained in the text.
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