Islamic Finance Bibliography


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IAAER-IFRS Foundation. (2010). Presentation Material. Joint IAAER-IFRS Foundation IFRS Teaching Special Interest Session. Singapore, 4 November 2010.

IAS Plus. (n.d.). International Accounting Standards IAS 38, Intangible Assets.

Ibn ‘Ābidīn. (2005). Ḥāshiyah Radd al-Muḥtār ‘alā al-Durr al-Mukhtār. Beirūt: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn ‘Āṣim al-Namrī. (1980). Al-Kāfī fī Fiqh Ahl al-Madīnah al-Mālikī, Arab Saudi: Maktabah al-Riyāḍ al-Ḥadīthah.

Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Qurṭubī. (1979). Al-Kāfī fī Fiqh Ahl al-Madīnah, (2), p. 73. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Ḥasan.

Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr. (1387 AH). Al-Tamhīd li mā fī al- Muwaṭṭa’ min al-Maʿānī wa al-Asānīd. Morocco: Wazārat al-‘Awqāf.

Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr. (1400 AH). Al-Kāfī fī Fiqh Ahl al-Madīnah. Riyadh: Maktabat al-Riyāḍ al- Ḥadīthiyyah, Vol. 2.

Ibn ʿĀbidīn, M. (1966). Ḥāshiyyah Radd al-Muḥtār ʿalā al-Durr al-Mukhtār. Beirut: Dār al Kutub al- ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn ʿĀbidīn, M. (1979). Ḥāshiyat Ibn ʿĀbidīn. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn ʿĀbidīn, M. (1987). Radd al-Muḥtār ʿalā al-Durr al- Mukhtār. Beirūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī.

Ibn ʿĀbidīn, M. A. (1979). Ḥāshiyat Radd al-Muḥtār ʿalā al- Durr al-Mukhtār: Sharḥ Tanwīr al-Abṣār fī Fiqh Madhhab al-Imām Abī Ḥanīfah. Cairo: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn ʿĀbidīn, M. A. (1992). Radd al-Muḥtār ʿalā al-Durr al- Mukhtār. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn ʿĀbidīn, M. A. (n.d.). al-ʿUqūd al-Durriyyah fī Tanqīḥ al-Fatāwā al-Ḥamīdiyyah. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifah.

Ibn Abū Shaybah. (1980). Al-Muṣannaf. India: Al-Dār al-Salafīyyah.

Ibn Abū Shaybah. (1989). Al-Muṣannaf fī al-Aḥādīth wa al-Āthār, vol. 5. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Affan, Vol. 1.

Ibn al-ʿArabī, A. B. (2003). Aḥkām al-Qur’ān. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn al-ʿArabī, M. (1995). ʿĀridat al-Aḥwadhī bi Sharḥ Ṣaḥiḥ al-Tirmidhī. Beirūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī.

Ibn al-Humām, M. (1900). Sharḥ Fatḥ al-Qadīr. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn al-Hummām, K. (n.d.). Fatḥ al-Qadīr, in al-Maktabah al-Shāmilah, version 3.28.

Ibn al-Qayyim, J. (1415 AH). Tahdhīb al-Sunan. Beirūt: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn al-Qayyim, J. (1415 AH). Zād al-Maʿād. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, Vol. 27.

Ibn al-Qayyim, J. (1991). Iʿlām al-Muwaqqiʿīn ʿan Rabb al-ʿĀlamīn, ed. Muhammad ʿAbd al-Salām Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al- ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn al-Qayyim, J. (1993). Iʿlām al-Muwaqqiʿīn ʿan Rabb al- ʿĀlamīn. Cairo: Dār al-ḥadīth.

Ibn al-Qayyim, J. (t.t). Ighāthah al-Lahfān min Maṣāyid al-Shayṭān. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn al-Qayyim, J. Al-Ṭuruq al-Ḥukmiyyah fī al-Siyāsah al-Sharʿiyyah, edited by Muḥammad Ḥāmid al-Fiqhī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Ashur, M. T. (2006). Ibn Ashur Treatise on Maqasid al-Sharīʿah. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought.

Ibn ʿĀshūr, M.T. (2001). Maqāṣid al-sharīʿah al-Islāmiyyah. Amman: Dār al-Nafā’is.

Ibn ʿĀshūr, M.T. (2006). Treatise on Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah, translated by Dr. Muḥammad El-Ṭāhir El-Mesawi. Herndon, Va.: International Institute of Islamic Thought.

Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalānī. (2003). Fatḥ al-Bārī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. Beirūt: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Ibn Ḥajar, Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī al-ʿAsqalānī. (1986). Lisān al-Mīzān. Beirut: Mua’ssasah al-‘Ālamī li al-Maṭbū‘ah.

Ibn Ḥajar, Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī al-ʿAsqalānī. (1986). Talkhīs al-Ḥabīr. Beirūt: Dār al-Maʿrifah.

Ibn Ḥajar, Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī al-ʿAsqalānī. (2000). Fatḥ al-Bārī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 12, Riyadh: Maktabat Dār al-Salām.

Ibn Ḥajar, Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī al-ʿAsqalānī. (n.d.). Talkhīṣ al-Ḥabīr. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Ḥanbal, A. (1421 AH). Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad. Tahqiq: Shuʿayb al-ʿArnā’ūṭ, ʿĀdil Murshid, et al. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah,

Ibn Ḥanbal, A. (1983). Musnad. Egypt: Mu’assasah Qurṭubah.

Ibn Ḥazm, ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd. (n.d.). Al-Muḥallā bī al-Āthār. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Ḥazm, M. A. (n.d). Al-Muḥallā bi al-Āthār. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Ḥazm. (1984). Al-Muḥallā bi al-Athar. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Ḥazm. (2001). Al-Muḥallā bi al-Āthār. Beirūt: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Ḥibbān, Muḥammad al-Tamīmī, and ʿAlī ibn Balbān al-Fārisī (editor). (1988). Al-Iḥsān fī Tartīb Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān (Taḥqīq Shuʿayb al-Arnāʾūṭ). Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risālah.

Ibn Ḥibban, Muḥammad. (1993) Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibban, 2nd ed. Beirut: Mu’assasat al- Risālah.

Ibn Hishām, A. (1963). Al-Sīrah al-Nabawiyyah. Cairo: Maṭbaʿah Muḥammad ʿAlī Sabīh.

Ibn Humām, M. (1921). Fatḥ al-Qadir. Beirūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī.

Ibn Juzay’. (1989). Al-Qawānīn al-Fiqhiyyah. Beirūt: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Mājah, Muḥammad ibn Yazīd (1980). Sunan Ibn Mājah. Beirūt: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Mājah, Muḥammad ibn Yazīd. (1998). Sunan Ibn Mājah, ed. Muḥammad Fu’ād ʿAbd al-Bāqī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Manẓūr, M. M. A. (n.d.). Lisān al-ʿArab. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir.

Ibn Mufliḥ, Muḥammad. (1997). Al-Furūʿ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Mufliḥ, Muḥammad. (1997). Al-Mubdiʿ fi Sharḥ al-Muqniʿ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Nujaym, Z. (1985). Al-Ashbāh wa al-Naẓā’ir ʿalā Madhhab Abī Ḥanīfah. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Nujaym, Z. (1990). Al-Baḥr al-Rā’iq. Beirūt: Dār al-Maʿrifah.

Ibn Qudāmah. (1983). Al-Mughnī. Beirut: Dār al Fikr.

Ibn Qudāmah. (1994). Al- Mughnī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr.

Ibn Qudāmah. (1994). Al-Kāfī fī Fiqh Ibn Ḥanbal. Beirūt: Dār al-Kutub al- ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Rajab. Al-Qawāʿid. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al- ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Rushd (1994), “The Book of Zakat”, in: the Distinguished Jurist’s Primer (Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa Nihayat al-Muqtasid translated by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, Reading (UK), Garnet Publishing, vol. 1, pp. 283-328.

Ibn Rushd, M. (1408 AH). Al-Muqaddimāt al-Mumahhidāt. Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, Vol. 1.

Ibn Rushd, M. (1988). al-Bayān wa al-Taḥṣīl wa al- Sharḥ wa al-Tawjīh wa al-Taʿlīl fī Masā’il al- Mustakhrajah. Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī.

Ibn Rushd, M. (2003). The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer. Volume II. Reading: Garnet Publishing Limited.

Ibn Rushd, M. (2004). Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihāyat al- Muqtaṣid. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (1951). Al-Qawa’id al-Nuraniyyah al-Fiqhiyyah. Kaherah: Maktabah al- SunInah al-Muhammadiyyah.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (1987). Al- Fatāwā al-Ḥamawiyyah al- Kubrā. Vol 1. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (1992). Al-Ḥisbah fī al-Islām wa Waẓīfat al-Ḥukūmah al-Islāmiyyah. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (1995). Majmūʿ al-Fatāwā, edited by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad. Al-Madinah al- Munawarah: King Fahad Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (1999). Al-Fatāwā al-Kubrā. Dār Arqam. Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). (2009). Guiding Principles on Governance for

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (2000). The Medinan Way The Soundness of the Basic Premises of the School of the People of Medina. Norwich: Bookwork.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (2005). Mawsūʿah Fatāwā al-Imām Ibn Taymiyyah fī al-Muʿāmalāt wa Aḥkām al-Māl. Cairo: Dār al-Salām.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (n.d.), in Rafīq Yūnus (2005). Fiqh al-Muʿāmalāt al- Māliyyah. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam.

Ibn Taymiyyah, A. (n.d.). Naẓariyyat al-ʿAqd. Cairo: Maktabah al-Sunnah al-Muḥammadiyyah.

Ibn, A. (2006), Treatise on Maqasid al-Shari’ah, (translated by El-Mesawi, M.E.-T.), The International Institute of Islamic Thought, London.

Ibraheem Musa Tijani & Dr. Noor Suhaida Kasri,Guarantee and Recourse in Sukuk Structure,ISRA Bloomberg Bulletin Fatwa in Islamic Finance,

Ibraheem Musa Tijani, Mazhar Samer Kantakji,Establishment of ISRA,Global Islamic Economic Magazine,

Ibraheem Musa Tijani,A Proposed Regulatory Framework for Islamic Microfinance: Adopting the IFSA 2013 Approach,ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance (English Journal),

Ibraheem Musa Tijani,A Snapshot of Tawarruq in Contemporary Islamic Finance - September 2013 - Fatwa in Islamic Finance,ISRA Bloomberg Bulletin Fatwa in Islamic Finance,

Ibraheem Musa Tijani,An Introduction to Waqf - A Primer,ISRA Bloomberg Bulletin Fatwa in Islamic Finance,

Ibraheem Musa Tijani,Money laundering: an Islamic perspective,Global Islamic Economic Magazine,

Ibraheem Tijani,Discussion on  Profit and Loss Sharing (PLS) with Dr. Daud Bakar's Thesis - Islamic Economic Forum,,

Ibraheem Tijani,Discussions on Tawarruq - Islamic Economic Forum,,

Ibrāhīm Muṣṭāfā. (1972). Al-Muʿjam al-Wasīt, vol. 2. Istanbul: al-Maktabah al-Islamiyyah.

Ibrahim, A. A. (2006). ‘Convergence of Corporate Governance and Islamic Financial Services Industry: Towards Islamic Financial Services Securities Market’, http://Isr.nellco.org/georgetown/gps/papers/3, accessed 15 August 2010

Ibrahim, Uzaimah. (2000). Commodity Futures Contract: An Analysis in Islamic Commercial Law. PhD., University of Wales, Lampeter.

IDB, IFSB and IRTI, (2007). ‘Islamic Financial Services Industry Development: Ten-year Framework and Strategies’, available at: http://www.ifsb.org/docs/10_yr_framework. pdf (accessed 25 August 2009).

Idris, Rustam Mohd. (2011). Shariah Governance Framework for Islamic Financial Institutions: Rising Shariah Competency to the Next Level. Paper presented at International Conference on Islamic Business and Finance, Islamabad, Pakistan.

IFRS Foundation. (2010). International Accounting Standard. London, United Kingdom.

IFRS Foundation. (2010). The Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting 2010. London, United Kingdom.

IFRS Foundation. (2011). International Accounting Standard. London, United Kingdom.

IFRS Foundation. (2012). International Accounting Standard. London, United Kingdom.

IFRS Pocket Guide (2012). 12 December 2013. Retrieved from https://inform.pwc.com/inform2/ content?action=resource&id...pdf

IFSB & IAIS. (2006). Issues in Regulation and Supervision of Takaful. Kuala Lumpur and Jordan: Islamic Financial Services Board & International Association of Insurance Supervisors.

IFSB (2010). Exposure Draft: Guidance Note on the Practice of Smoothing the Profits Payout to Investment Account Holders.

IFSB, IRTI, IDB, (2005). ‘CIBAFI Ten-Year Master Plan’, available at: http://www.ifsb. org/docs/10-yr-framework.pdf

IFSB, IRTI, IDB, (2010). ‘Islamic Finance and Global Financial Stability 2010’, available at: http://www.ifsb.org/docs/IFSB-IRTI-IDB2010.pdf (accessed 20 May 2010).

IFSB. (2005). Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB)'s Capital Adequacy Standard for Institutions (Other than Insurance Institutions) Offering Only Islamic Financial Services. Kuala Lumpur: IFSB.

IFSB. (2009). IFSB-10: Guiding Principles on Shariah Governance Systems for Institutions Offering Islamic Financial Services.

IFTIKHAR, ASIF, "What is Riba?" Renaissance, Lahore, (9:7), July 1999, pp.48-62. Summary: In a question-answer form, argues that all types of interest are riba. Explains the Islamic rationale behind prohibition of riba. Mark-up is also a form of riba. Interest from non-Muslims is also riba. The theory of riba-al fadl needs to be understood properly. Its prevalent understanding is not correct. In fact, riba in barter transactions also arises o nly when there is a loan transaction (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Ignacio de la Torre,The Role of Derivatives in the Credit Crisis (English),,

Ijlal Alvi,THE IIFM ISLAMIC HEDGING MASTER AGREEMENT: A SHARIAH PERSPECTIVE (ISRA-TR REPORT 2016),,

Illiayas, Mohd. (2008). Islamic/interest-free Banking in Malaysia: some legal considerations, retrievable via http://islamicbanker.wordpress.com /2008/07/11/affin-bank-berhad-v-zulkifli-bin-abdullah/ Islamic banking act 1983.

ʿIlmiyyah.Al-Nawawī. (n.d.). Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn, Dār al-Rayyān.Al-Qarāfī, A. (1994). Al-Dhakhīrah fī al-Fiqh. Morocco, Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī. Al-Qayyim, I. (1415 AH). Zād al-Maʿād. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah.

Imai, Katsuhi, Gaiha, Raghav and Thapa, Ganesh. (2008). Foodgrain Stocks, Prices and Speculation. Available at <http://ssrn.com/ abstract=1311262>. Access date: January 9, 2012.

Imām Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā ibn Murtaḍā. (840 AH) al-Baḥr al-Zakhkhār al-Jāmiʿ li Madhāhib ʿUlamā’ al-Amṣār. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah.

IMAMUDDIN,   S.M.,   “A   Historical   Background   of   Modern   Islamic Banking”, in A.M. Zaidi (ed.) The World of Islam Today, New Delhi: Indian Institute of Applied Political Research 1990, pp. 352-55.

IMAMUDDIN, S.M., “Al Hisbah in Muslim Spain”, Islamic Culture, 1963, Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 25-9.

IMF Survey, May 11, 1998, pp: 151-153

IMF. (2012). Global Financial Stability Report: The Quest for Lasting Stability. New York.

Imtiazi, I. A. et al. (eds.), (1989), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB, 236 p.

Imtiazi, I. A., (1985), A Model for Assessment, Collection and Disbursement of Zakah (Case Study of Pakistan), Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, vol.2, no. 3, July-December, pp. 25-79.

Imtiazi, I. A., (1989), “Organization of Zakah: The Pakistan Model and Experience, in: I.A. Imtiazi et al. (eds.), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB, pp. 157-176.

INAYAT, NADEEM, "Performance of Islamic Banks in Areas of Investment and Trade," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 278-283. Summary: Gives a broad overview of Islamic modes of financing. For a successful transition to Islamic financial system, it is essential that effective controls against fraudulent statements of profit and loss are devised. Besides, the government should stop deficit financing so that inflation is controlled and value of money is not depleted. Comprehensive legal changes in support of Islamic financing techniques should be introduced (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Income Tax Act 1967 (act 53) – With Selected Regulations & Rules). (2009). Malaysia: International Law Book Services.

Ingves, Stefan & Hoelscher, David S. (2005). The Resolution of Systemic Banking System Crises. In Ed. Evanoff, Douglas D. & Kaufman, George G. Systemic Financial Crises: Resolving Large Bank Insolvencies. New Jersey: World Scientific.

Institute   of   Islamic   Banking   and   Insurance   (IIBI),   London,   ‘A Compendium of Legal Opinions on the Operations of Islamic Banks’, edited & translated by Yusuf Talal Delorenzo, Volume-II, 2000.

Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad,  ‘Elimination of Riba from the Economy’ , 1994.

Insurance Info. (2013). Family Takaful. Available at http://www.insuranceinfo.com.my/_system/media/ downloadables/life_insura ce.pdf. (Viewed 12- 07-2013).

Insurance Info. (2013). House Owner Takaful. http://www.insuranceinfo.com.my/_system/media/ downloadables/houseowne takaful.pdf. (Viewed 12-07-2013).

Interim Report of The Commission for Transformation of Financial System , Islamabad: Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, Oct. 2000, 87 pp. Unpublished. Mimeo. Summary: It is an interim report by the Commission for Transformation of Financial System set up by the Government of Pakistan in response to the decision of the Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court on the appeal of the Government against a Shari’ah Court Judgment announced in 1991. The report reviews previous work on the subject and makes proposals for transforming the financial system of the economy on riba-free basis. It specifically deals with Islamic financial markets and instruments of monetary policy. Makes proposals for implementing the recommendations (Muhammad Akram Khan).

International Accounting Standard (IAS) 38 Intangible Assets. Retrieved from http://www.ifrs.org/ IFRSs/Documents/English%20IAS%20and%20 IFRS%20PDFs%202012/IAS%2038.pdf, accessed September 2, 2013.

International Accounting Standards Committee. (1998). Shaping IASC for the Future, Discussion paper, IASC.

International Accounting Standards Council. (IASC) (1989). Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements. IASC Board, London, United Kingdom.

International Association of Islamic Banks (1995). Directory of Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions: 1994. Jeddah: IAIB.

International Cooperative and Mutual Insurance Federation (ICMIF). Takaful and Mutuality; Aug; 2014; http://www.takāful.coop/images/ stories/Takāful%20&%20Mutuality%20Digital. pdf

International Financial Services London (2009). Islamic Finance 2009, International Financial Services London Research, February.

International Institute of Islamic Economics (1990), Evaluation of Zakah and Ushr System in Pakistan (Draft), Islamabad.

International Institute of Islamic Economics (IIIE), ‘IIIE’s Blue Print of Islamic Financial System’ 1999, Islamabad.

International Islamic Fiqh Academy. (2010). Resolutions of Majma’ al-Fiqh al-Islāmī from 1983-2010, http://www.fiqhacademy.org.sa/.

International Monetary Fund (2000). Offshore Financial Centers. IMF Background Paper. Available at http://www.imf.org/external/np/mae/oshore/2000/eng/ back.htm.

International Monetary Fund (2009). The Cayman Islands: Off-Shore Financial Centre Assessment Update—Assessment of Financial Sector Supervision and Regulation. Washington.

International Shari’ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA) (2011). Islamic Financial System – Principles & Operations. Kuala Lumpur: International Shari’ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA).

International Shari’ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA) (2017). Islamic Financial System – Principles & Operations - 2nd Edition. Kuala Lumpur: International Shari’ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA).

International Shariah Research Academy (ISRA),Historical Root of Islamic Finance in Malaysia From The Pre-Islamic Era Until 1983,Books,

Investment Strategy in Islamic Banking: Applications, Issues and Problems, Amman: Al-Bait Foundation, 1992, 405 pp. Summary: A collection of papers presented to the workshop jointly held by Islamic Research and Training Institute, Jeddah and al-Bait Foundation, Amman during 16-21 June 1987 at Amman. Contains six papers and five case studies. Also summarizes comments and discussions during the workshop. The papers deal with juridical and practical aspects of murabaha, profit-sharing, and mudaraba. The cases pertain to Pakistan, Sudan, Bahrain, Jordan and Denmark (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IPSIRLI, M., “A Preliminary Study of the Public Waqfs of Hama and Homs in the XVI Century”, Studies on Turkish Arab Relations, 1986.

IPŠIRLI, Muhammad., “The Waqfs of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century According to the Tahrirr Registers”, in The Third International Conference on Bilad al-Sham, Vol. 2: Geography and Civilization of Palestine, Amman, 1984, pp. 96-107.

Iqbal, M. and Molyneux, P. (2005), Thirty Years of Islamic Banking: History, Performance and Prospects, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY.

Iqbal, Munawar (April 2001),  ‘Islamic and Conventional Banking in the Nineties: A Comparative Study’  in ‘Islamic  Economic  Studies’; Vol.8 No.2 pp.1 – 27.

IQBAL, MUNAWAR, "Islamic and Conventional Banking in the Nineties: A Comparative Study", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (8:2), April, 2001, pp.1-28. Summary: Using data for the period of 1990-98, several hypotheses and common perceptions about the practice of Islamic banking have been tested. Uses trend and ratio analysis. For this purpose, some objective 'benchmarks' for various ratios have been developed. Compares the performance of the Islamic banks with a control group of conventional banks. Concludes the Islamic banks have done fairly well during the period under study (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, MUNAWAR, "Islamic Banking", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1998, pp. 493-506. Presented to Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: The rationale of Islamic banking lies in prohibition of riba. Islamic banking is based on three approaches: buying on cash and selling on credit; profit-sharing; and rental of assets. Traces the evolution of Islamic banking from 1973 (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, MUNAWAR, "Macro-Consumption Theory in an Islamic Economic Framework" in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank , 1998, pp. 261-270. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Argues that the popular assertion that zakah would increase consumption in Islamic economy is not conclusive as Islamic injunctions against israf and for simple living may neutralize it. The effect of zakah on consumption is indeterminate (Muhammad Akram Khan)..

IQBAL, MUNAWAR, "Organization of Production and Theory of the Firm", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol.2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, pp. 397-410. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Studies the theory of firm in the Islamic framework. Discusses forms of production on basis of musharaka, mudaraba and ijara. The Muslim producer devotes his activities with certain positive non-financial targets in mind as distinguished from profit maximization motive (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, MUNAWAR, "Teaching programs in Islamic Economics: A Comparative Study in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute , 1998, pp. 629-674. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August,1991. Summary: Presents the experiences of three pioneering schools of teaching Islamic economics: faculty of Islamic economics at Imam Muhammad bin Saud University, Riyad h; School of Economics at IIU Islamabad, and College of Economics at IIUM (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, MUNAWAR, Challenges Facing Islamic Banking, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1998, 95 pp. Summary: Summarizes the concept of Islamic banking. Argues the Islamic banking faces several problems such as instruments for short-term investment, regulatory mechanism for oversight, cooperation among the Islamic financial institutions, moral hazard, relatively high emphasis on fixed return modes of finance, innovative financial instruments, lender of the last resort, uniform Shari’ah supervision, etc. Makes suggestions to overcome these problems (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Iqbal, Munawar. A Guide to Islamic Finance. (2007). London: Risk Books.

Iqbal, Z. & Mirakhor A. (2011). An Introduction to Islamic Finance: Theory and Practice, 2nd Edition. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Iqbal, Z. (1997). ‘Islamic financial systems’, Finance & Development, June, pp. 42-45.

Iqbal, Zafar, (1989), “Comments” on Mohammad Hashim Awad’s “Adjusting Tax Structure to Accommodate Zakah”, in: I. A. Imtiazi et al. (eds.), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB, pp. 97-100.

IQBAL, ZAMIR, "Financial Engineering in Islamic Finance," Thunderbird International Business Review (41:4-5), July 1999, pp. 541-560. Summary: Depicts the scenario of Islamic finance. Argues that Islamic financial rules permit new financial instruments. For this purpose, the contemporary discipline of financial engineering can be used. However, care must be taken that no compromise is made on basic principles. Gives examples of commodity swap securities that can be developed within the Islamic framework (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, ZAMIR, "Financial Innovations in Islamic Banking", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (15:2), April 1998, pp. 7-17. Summary: Financial innovations -securitizations and derivatives - play a vital role in global financial markets. Availability of marketable and liquidity-enhancing instruments expands opportunities for investors and financial institutions. The future of Islamic banks lies in resorting to these innovations. They must consider all options. Contrary to common belief, the Islamic financial system provides a flexible scenario to adapt to various Western financial innovations (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, ZAMIR, "Islamic Financial Systems", Finance and Development, Washington, (34:2), June 1997, pp. 42-45. Summary: Asserts that Islamic finance is emerging as a rapidly growing part of financial sector in the Islamic world. It is not restricted to Islamic countries, but is spreading wherever there is a sizeable Muslim community. Introduces Islamic modes of finance . Identifies issues and challenges and indicates future direction of Islamic finance (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, ZAMIR, "Progress and Challenges of Islamic Banking," Thunderbird International Business Review, (41:4-5), July 1999, pp. 381-405. Summary: Reviews the progress of Islamic banking and Islamic financial markets. Presents the fundamental principles of the Islamic financial system in the light of developments in modern financial theory. Identifies the challenges ahead for the development and future growth of a non-interest based financial system. Concludes that the Islamic banking has established itself as an emerging alternative to interest -based banking and is gaining roots. Research in Islamic economics and finance has further enhanced our understanding of Islam's vision of an economic and financial system. Developments in modern financial theory lead to the inference that, under certain conditions, a financial system based on Islamic principles can be more efficient than an interest-based system (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, ZAMIR, "Scope of Asset Securitization", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:4), Oct-Dec 1997, pp. 35-41. Summary: Introduces the concept of securitization and shows how it is an increasing mode of investment. Suggests a mechanism for adopting securitization in the framework of Islamic finance (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, ZAMIR, "The Benchmark Issue in the Islamic Financial System", American Journal of Islamic Social sciences, Herndon, VA, (16:2), summer 1999, pp.45-54. Summary: In absence of a well-developed benchmark that would facilitate macro and micro level decision-making with regard to cost of capital and opportunity cost of investments in comparative projects of similar risk, Islamic financial institutions are relying on LIBOR for lending decisions. This is unacceptable from Islamic point of view. Proposes a benchmark based on Tobin's q theory of investment. Maintains that unlike existing benchmarks which are limited to macro-level applications only q-based benchmark would be useful for firms and banks (micro-level) as well as governments and institutions (macro-planning) (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IQBAL, ZAMIR, Islamic Financial Systems. Unpublished. Mimeo. 1997, pp. 9. Summary: A general introduction to the Islamic financial system and financial markets. Highlights the present position of Islamic funds and capital markets. Spotlights the challenges being faced by Islamic financial markets (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Iqbal, Zubair Mohammad S. Amerah, (1990), “Zakah Expenditure” and “Zakah Revenue” in: Public Finance in Islam, Lahore, Readers Publishers, pp. 18-22, 97-106.

IRCICA, The Muslim Pious Foundations [Awqaf] and Real Estates in Palestine, Istanbul, Islamic Research Center for History, Culture and Arts 1982.

Irfan Syauqi Beik,The Importance of Islamic Social Finance (ISF) Sector in the National Socio Economic Development,ISRA Event Articles,

IRFANI, A. MALIK, "Mudarabat -Maujuda Tijarti Urf," (Urdu) (Mudaraba in the Everyday Trade) Nawa-i-Qanun, Islamabad, (10:2), Oct.1991, pp. 92-96. Summary: Explains meaning and context of the contract of mudaraba in the early Islamic law. Argues that because of change in the context, there is need for ijtehad in the concept and its application (Muhammad Akram Khan).

IRTI “Report on Awqaf Activities in Western and Central French–Speaking African Countries”, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, 1998, pp.17-21.

Isah, Maryam, (1992), “A Possible Position of Zakat in the Context of Social Welfare in Islam” in: Gusau, Sule Ahmed (ed.), Islam and the Contemporary Economic Problems, Sokoto (Nigeria), Usman Dan Fodiyo University, pp. 88-9.

Ishak, Othman. (1997). At the Cutting Edge of Shariah Auditing and Compliance? Islamic Banker, 23.

ISLAHI,  A.A.,  Market  Mechanism  in  Islam:  A Historical  Perspective, Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, 1991, 16 p. (Typescript).

ISLAHI, A.A., Economic Concepts of Ibn Taimiyah, Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1988, 286. (Under the same title, extracts of this work have been included in ethico- Juristic Matters having Implications for Economic Behaviour” Sadeq and Ghazali, Readings in Islamic Economic Thought, Kuala Lumpur: Longman Malaysia, 1992, pp. 119-156.

ISLAHI, A.A., Economic Thought of Ibn al Qayyim, Jeddah:  International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, 1984, 35 p. Reprinted in Sadeq and Ghazali, Readings in Islamic Economic Thought, Kuala Lumpur: Longman Malaysia, 1992, pp. 157-175.

ISLAHI, A.A., History of Economic Thought in Islam: A Subjectwise Survey, Aligarh (India): Aligarh Muslim University, 1996, 40 pp.

ISLAHI, A.A., Ibn Taimiyah’s Concept of Market Mechanism”, Journal of Research in Islamic Economics, (Jeddah) Winter 1985, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 55-56. Reprinted in S. Tahir, A. Ghazali and S.O.S. Agil, (eds.), Readings in Micro Economics:  An  Islamic  Perspective,  Kuala  Lumpur:  Longman  Malaysia, 1992, pp. 157-164.

ISLAHI, A.A., Market and Price Mechanism in Pre-Classical Literature, Typescript, 1991, 22 p. An abstract appeared in the Indian Economic Association Conference Volume, Anantapur (A.P. India: 1991, part 1, p.159-60).

Islahi, Abdul Azim and Mohammed Obaidullah (2004), "Zakah on Stocks, Some Unsettled Issues", Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Vol.17, No. 2, pp. 3-17.

ISLAHI, Abdul Azim, "Institution of Waqf and Human Resource Development”, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad and Institute for Political and International Studies, Tehran, 1996, 14 p.

ISLAHI, Abdul Azim, "Provision of Public goods - role of Voluntary (Waqf) Sector in Islamic History” in Mannan, M. A. (ed.), Financing Development in Islamic Economics, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB 1996, pp. 367-91.

Islahi, Abdul Azim, (1984), “Economic Significance of Zakah”, in: Economic Thought of Ibn al-Qayyim, Jeddah, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, pp. 7-11.

ISLAHI, ABDUL AZIM, History of Economic Thought in Islam: A Bibliography, Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre, King Abdulaziz University, 1997, 22 pp. Summary: Gives a list of writings in English language on history of Islamic economic thought. The subjects covered are: Economic history, public finance, partnership, mudaraba, property rights, money and banking, riba, hisba, agriculture, land management, and trade and commerce (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ISLAHI, ABDUL AZIM, History of Economic Thought in Islam: A Subject-wise Survey, Aligarh: Indian Association for Islamic Economics, 1996, 40 pp. Summary: Section one deals with economic thinking in the Christian West up to Middle Ages. Sections two and three discuss beginning of economic ideas in Islam. Sections four and five deal with economic ideas of different thinkers on specific aspects of economics like taxation, public finance, interest, business market mechanism, prices, wealth, poverty and socio-economic development (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Islam and the Economic Challenge, Leicester (UK): Islamic Foundation

Islam and the Modern Age, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1990, pp. 53-75.

Islam, M. W. (1998). Dissolution of Contract in Islamic law. Arab Law Quarterly, 13 (4), 336-368.

Islam, M. W. (1999). al-Mal: The Concept of Property in Islamic Legal Thought. Arab Law Quarterly, 14(4), 361-368.

Islam” in: Raquibuzzaman (ed.), Some Aspects of the Economics of

Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly, March 1985, Vol. V, No. 1,

Islamic Banking and Insurance, Dhaka: Islami Bank Bangladesh, 1990, 210 pp. Summary: Proceedings and papers of International Seminar held in Dhaka on 27 October 1989 organized by the International Association of Islamic Banks and Islami Bank Bangladesh. Some papers in the volume have been annotated in the third volume of the present bibliography (312:101, 312:24). Others have been included in this volume at appropriate locations (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Islamic Banking: House Financing-i. http://www. bankinginfo.com.my/_system/media/ downloadables/house_finani n g . p d f .

Islamic Commercial Law (Fiqh Muamalat). (2009). Malaysia: Lexis Nexis Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.

Islamic Culture, January 1990, Vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 39-60.

Islamic Development Bank & Islamic Fiqh Academy. (2000). Resolutions and Recommendations of The Council of The Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985- 2000. Retrieved from http://www.irtipms.org/ PubText/73.pdf .

Islamic Economics Research Bureau, (1980), “A Plea for Introduction of Zakat and A Draft of Zakat Act”, in: K. T. Hosain et al. (eds.), Thoughts on Islamic Economics, Dhaka, pp. 113-126.

Islamic Economics Research Bureau, (1988), Zakah and Ushr, Dhaka, IERB, 42 p.

Islamic Economics, AMSS (ed.), pp. 173-78.

Islamic Finance Council UK. (2010). http://www.islamicfinancecounciluk.com/ standardisation-needs-be-tackled-carefully.

Islamic Finance Information Services (2012). IFIS Highlights.

Islamic Finance News (2011). Labuan IBFC Sees Further Growth of Islamic Finance Services. IFN Reports. Available at http://www.islamicfinancenews. com/listing_article_ID1.asp?nm_id=22296&searchid=2540.

Islamic Finance News (2012). Offshore or Onshore. Islamic Finance News. Vol. 9. Issue 12.

Islamic Finance News. (2011, November 9). Shariah Auditing For The Islamic Finance Industry. Islamic Finance News, 8(44).

Islamic Finance News. (2012, 12 March). Bank Al Jazira SAR1 billion Sukuk.

Islamic Financial Services Act. (2013).

Islamic Financial Services Board. (2005). IFSB 2: Capital Adequacy Standard for Institutions (Other Than Insurance Institutions) Offering Only Islamic Financial Services. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Islamic Financial Services Board. (2009). Guiding Principles on Governance for Takaful (Islamic Insurance) Undertakings.

Islamic Financial Services Board. (2009). Guiding Principles on Shari’ah Governance Systems for Institutions Offering Islamic Financial Services. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB).

Islamic Financial Services Board. (2012). Exposure Draft – 15. Revised Capital Adequacy Standard for Institutions Offering Islamic Financial Services [Excluding Islamic Insurance (Takāful) Institutions and Islamic Collective Investment Schemes]. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Financial Services Board.

Islamic Fiqh Academy (2000) Resolutions and Recommendation of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985-2000. Retrieved from: http://www.irtipms.org/PubText/73.pdf

Islamic Fiqh Academy (2000), “Investment of Zakat Fund” in: Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985 – 2000, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, p. 27.

Islamic Fiqh Academy (2000), “Payment of Zakat in favour of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and Its Waqf” in: Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985 –2000, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 55-56.

Islamic Fiqh Academy (2000), “Payment of Zakat on Company Shares” in: Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985 – 2000, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 57-58.

Islamic Fiqh Academy (2000), “Zakat on Debts and Real Estates” in: Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985 – 2000, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 3-4.

Islamic Fiqh Academy (India). (n.d.) Ninth Seminar: buying and selling before getting possession. Retrieved from http://ifa-india.org/english/ decision_Possession.html (accessed May 11, 2006).

Islamic Research And Training Institute and Islamic Development Bank. (2000). Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985-2000. Jeddah: Islamic Research And Training Institute.

Ismail Mahayudin (1997). International Trade Operations: A Guide. Kuala Lumpur: BIRT.

Ismail, A. G. (2010). Money, Islamic banks and the real economy. Singapore: Cengage Learning.

Ismail, A. G. and Tohirin, A. (2009). Finance and growth: The role of Islamic contracts. MPRA Paper. http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/pramprapa/13744.htm

Ismail, A. H. (1990). ‘The Teaching of Islamic Economics: The Practitioner’s Point of View’, paper presented at the workshop on the Teaching of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Malaysia, 20-22 July, pp. 1-43.

Ismail, A. H. (2002). The Deferred Contracts of Exchange: Qur’an in Contrast with the Islamic Economists’ Theory on Banking and Finance. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia (IKIM).

ISMAIL, A. HALIM, Islamic Equity Markets", New Horizon, London, (68), Oct. 1997, pp. 9-11. Summary: Introduces the concept of equity and debt in Islam. Explains the manner in which Bank Islam Malaysia (BIMB) operates. Also highlights the activities of BIMB Securities, which is a subsidiary of BIMB. Discusses salient features of some financial instruments being managed by the BIMB Securities (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Ismail, A.G. (2010). Money, Islamic Banks and the Real Economy. Cengage Learning: Singapore.

Ismail, Abdul Halim. (2002). The Deferred Contracts of Exchange Al-Quran In Contrast With The Islamic Economists’ Theory on Banking and Finance. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia.

Ismail, H. and Panni, M. F. (2008). ‘Consumer perception on the consumerism issues and its influences on their purchasing behavior: A view from Malaysian food industry’, Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 11 (1), 43-64.

Ismail, S. M. (1997). Al-Ijtihād al-Jamā’i wa Dawr al Majāmiʿ al-Fiqhiyyah fi Taṭbīqihi. Jeddah: Dār al Bashā’ir al-Islāmiyyah.

ISOBEL, LOBO, Implementation and Performance of Interest-free Banking in Pakistan, 330 pp. Unpublished. Ph.D. thesis submitted to the University of Notre Dame, 1998. Summary: Evaluates the success of interest-free banking by examining and comparing the performance of interest-free banking in Pakistan in terms of source and uses of funds, profitability, and rates of return on deposits and finance, in the pre-nationalized commercial banks and selected foreign banks. Banking added a buy-back feature that is considered un-Islamic (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ISRA - IRTI - DURHAM,DURHAM ROUNDTABLE DECLARATION,ISRA Event Articles,

ISRA - IRTI - DURHAM,KUALA LUMPUR DECLARATION,ISRA Event Articles,

ISRA - Thomson Reuters,ISRA Thomson Reuters Islamic Commercial Law Report 2016,,

ISRA (2010). ISRA Compendium for Islamic Financial Terms: Arabic-English.

ISRA IRTI Durham,DURHAM DECLARATION,ISRA Event Articles,

ISRA IRTI Durham,Jeddah Roundtable Declaration - 3rd SRD,ISRA Event Articles,

ISRA MCSN 2014,Resolusi Muzakarah,Event Resolution,

ISRA, Islamic Capital Market - Principles & Practices, Books,

ISRA, Islamic Financial System - Principles & Operations (hard cover edition),Books,

ISRA, Islamic Financial System: Principles and Operations (2nd Edition),Books,

ISRA,2016 Resolusi Muzakarah,Event Resolution,

ISRA,Durham University,5th ISRA-IRTI-Durham University SRD 2015 Recommendations,Global Islamic Economic Magazine,

ISRA,IRTI,Durham University,5th SRD RESOLUTION 2015 - Kuala Lumpur,Event Resolution,

ISRA,islamic finance,,

ISRA,ISRA & THOMSON REUTERS LAUNCH INAUGURAL JOINT PUBLICATION ON ISLAMIC COMMERCIAL LAW REPORT 2016,Global Islamic Economic Magazine,

ISRA,Muzakarah11 Resolution (English),Event Resolution,

ISRA,Parameter Hiyal dalam Kewangan Islam (kertas kerja),ISRA Event Articles,

ISRA,Proceeding : 2nd Oxford Islamic Finance Round Table,Proceeding,

ISRA,Proceeding : 4th International Shariah Scholars Forum 2009,Proceeding,

ISRA,Proceeding : 5th International Shariah Scholars Forum 2010,Proceeding,

ISRA,Proceeding : 6th International Shariah Scholars Forum 2011,Proceeding,

ISRA,Prosiding : Muzakarah Cendekiawan Syariah Nusantara ke-3,Proceeding,

ISRA,Prosiding : Muzakarah Cendekiawan Syariah Nusantara ke-4,Proceeding,

ISRA,Prosiding : Muzakarah Cendekiawan Syariah Nusantara ke-5,Proceeding,

ISRA,Resolusi Muzakarah Cendekiawan Syariah Nusantara (MUZAKARAH 11),Event Resolution,

ISRA,Resolusi Muzakarah Cendekiawan Syariah Nusantara ke-9,ISRA Event Articles,

ISRA,Resolusi Muzakarah,Event Resolution,

ISRA,Resolusi Muzakarah,Event Resolution,

ISRA,Resolusi Muzakarah,Event Resolution,

ISRA,Resolution - ISSF 2015,Event Resolution,

ISRA,Resolutions of ISSF 2009,Event Resolution,Iṭfīsh, Muḥammad Yūsuf (n.d.). Sharḥ Kitāb al-Nayl wa Shifāʿ al-ʿAlīl. Oman: Wizārat al-Turāth al-Qawmī.

IVANOVA, Svetlana and Ivanova, Zorka, “Nineteenth Century Waqf Archives Preserved in the Oriental Department of the National Library Statements. Cyril and Methodius” in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.) Kunuz al Waqf …, Qum 2000, Vol. 60, pp. 65-78.

IYER, Ganapati, ‘Hindu and Mohammadan Edowments, Madras (India),1918.

Izadi, Ali M., (1974), “The Role of az-Zakat ( An Institutionalized Charity) in an Islamic System of Economics in Curing the Poverty Dilemma”, Proceedings of the Third National Seminar, Gary, Indiana, USA, Association of Muslim Social Scientists, pp. 9-18.

Izutsu, Toshihiko. (2004). Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur’an. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust.

ʿIzz al-Dīn, A. S. (1999). Qawāʿid al-Aḥkām fi Maṣāliḥ al-Anām, ed. A. L. Raḥmān. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyyah.

IZZIDEEN, MAWIL Y., "Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law and Society" in J. R. Engel and J.G. Engel (eds.), Ethics of Environment and Development, London: Belhaven Press, 1990, pp. 189-198. Summary: Explains the Islamic point of view on environments. Derive several rules from the Qur'an and the Sunnah about the sanctity of the ecological balance in the Islamic framework (Muhammad Akram Khan).

 

 

J

Ja, M. N. (2008). Principles of Public International Law: A Modern Approach. Malaysia: IIUM Press.

Jabatan Ketua Pengarah Tanah dan Galian Persekutuan, Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar. (2012). Review of the National Land Code 1966, in Transforming the Legal, Administrative and Procedural Framework for Enhancement of the Land Administration Delivery System in Peninsular Malaysia, Consultation Paper. Retrieved from http://www.kptg.gov.my/.

Jacklen, H.R. (1988, 1989), ‘‘Banking on the informal sector’’, paper presented at the International Conference on Microenterprise Development, Washington, DC.

Jackson, D. C. (1967). Principles of Property Law. Australia: The Law Book Company Limited.

Jacobs, Bruce I. and Levy, Kenneth N. (1989). Forecasting the Size Effect, Financial Analysts’ Journal, May/Jun.

JAFRI, S.S.A., "Sunni Awqaf and Waqf Board of Utter Pradesh",

Jaih Mubarok,Investasi Asuransi Syariah Di Indonesia (Kertas Kerja),ISRA Event Articles,

Jaʿīṭ, Muḥammad al-ʿAzīz (n.d.). Al-Ṭarīqah al- Marḍiyah fī al-Ijārāt al-Sharʿiyyah ʿala Mazhab al-Mālikiyyah.

Jal Othman,Ainin Wan Salleh,ENFORCEABILITY OF ISLAMIC FINANCE CONTRACTS: A MALAYSIAN EXPERIENCE (ISRA-TR REPORT 2016),,

JALDEN, M.S., The Muslim Law of Succession, Inheritance and Waqf in Sri Lanka, 1993.

Jalil, A., Mohd Ramli, A. and Shahwan, S. (2011). The Four Introductory Theories of Fiqh Muamalat. Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia: Wisdom Publication.

Jamal, Mohammad bin, (1964), “Zakat – A Socio-Economic Power for the Development and Progress of the Muslim Community,” World Muslim League, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 47-52.

Jamaluddin Nor Mohamad,ADVANCING THE ISLAMIC CAPITAL MARKET THROUGH STOCKBROKING: THE CASE OF MALAYSIA (ISRA-TR REPORT 2017),,

James, J. S. (1986). Stroud’s Judicial Dictionary of Words and Phrases Volume 4 P-R. Fifth Edition. London: Sweet & Maxwell Limited.

Jamjoom, Abdul Aziz M. Rashid, (1995), “Saudi Arabia” (A Case Study of Zakah Management), in: el-Ashker and Sirajul Haq (eds.), Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, Jeddah, IRTI, IDB, pp. 403-16.

Jarhi, Mabid Ali & Munawar Iqbal (2001); ‘Islamic Banking: Answers to some Frequently Asked Questions’; IRTI, IDB; Occasional Paper No. 4.

Jarjīs (1996). Muʿjam Muṣṭalaḥāt Fiqhiyyah. Beirut: al- Sharikat al-Alamiah lil Kitab

Jasani Abdullah dan Munawwaruzzaman Mahmud,Penggunaan Wad Dalam Kontrak Buyu, Ijarah Dan Syirkah Dari Perspektif Industri (Malay),ISRA Event Articles,

JASSEM, AQEEL A. al-, "Intra Islamic Trade and the Possible Role of International Islamic Banks", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:3), July 1997, pp.19-27. Summary: Gives structure of foreign trade of the OIC member countries. Concludes that the Islamic countries had ample physical resources and potential for growth of industry and trade (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Jaufeerally, Reza Zain. (2011). Islamic Banking and Responsible Investment: Is a Fusion Possible? In Wim Vandekerckhove et. al., (eds.), Responsible Investment in Times of Turmoil (pp. 151-163), London and New York: Springer.

Jawed, T. (2008). Islamic Finance - The Offshore Connection. Islamic Finance News.

JENNINGS, R.C., “The Development of Evkaf in a new Ottoman Province: Cyprus, 1571-1640”, in Studies in the Muslim Waqf, eds. Gabriel Baer and Gad Gilbar, Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.

JENNINGS, Ronald C., “Pious Foundation in the Society and Economy of Ottoman Trabazon, 1565-1640”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1990, Vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 271-336.

JIBM,JIBM Discussion Forum Baiâ€ک al-Muajjal of GoP Ijarah sukuk Liquidity Management Product of the State Bank of Pakistan Introduced vide SBP, DMMD Circular No. 17 Oct. 15, 2014 [Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM)],,

JIBM,Thomson Reuters “Islamic Interbank Benchmark Rateâ€‌ †IIBR Is it really an Important Step Forward for Islamic Finance Authenticity? [Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM)],,

Jobst, Andreas A. (2007). Derivatives in Islamic Finance. Islamic Economic Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2007.

JOHANSEN,  BABER,  The  Islamic  Law  and  Land  Tax  and  Rent,  Kent: Croom Helm Ltd., 1988.

John, S. H. (2009). International Business Managing Globalisation, London: Sage Publication.

JOMO, K. S., "Islam and Capitalist Development: A Critique of Rodinson and Weber," in Jomo, K. S., Islamic Economic alternatives, Kuala Lumpur: Ikraq, Selangor,1993, pp. 125-138 Summary: Summarizes the main argument of Maxim Rodinson as presented by him in Islam and Capitalism (1974). Although criticizes him on some points but agrees with the main thesis that Islam does not identify itself with any particular economic system. On this account disagrees with Weber (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Jones, C. I. (2009). The Global Financial Crisis: Overview. Retrieved from http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ502/tesfatsion/GlobalFinancialCrisis Overview.2009.CJones.pdf
Jordan, C., & Jain, A. (2009, October). Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Financial Crisis. Paper presented at the Canadian Law and Economics Association Meeting, University of Toronto, Canada.

JONES, W.R., “Waqf, Maristan and the Clinical Observation of Disease, Ministry of Public Health, Kuwait, 1981, pp. 261-264.

JONES, W.R., Pious Endowments in Medieval Christianity and Islam, Diogenes, (Montreal, Canada), 1980, 109:23-36.

Joosse, K. (2011). Which Social and Technological Innovations Can Support Active Ageing? Paper presented at the conference on The Future of Human Longevity: Breaking the Code, organized by Swiss-Re on 7 November, 2011, in Zurich.

Jordan, James V. and Morgan, George Emir. (1990). Default Risk in Futures Market: The Customer- Broker Relationship. The Journal of Finance, Vol. 45, No. 3, Papers and Proceedings Forty Ninth Annual Meeting, American Finance Association, Atlanta, Georgia, December 28-30, 1989 (Jul., 1990), pp. 909-933.

Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (18:3-4), Jul 01, 192 pp. Summary: The entire issue of the journal is devoted to the problem of riba and its elimination from economy. Includes 14 articles on various aspects of riba and Islamic banking. All these papers have been taken from earlier publications of the authors and have been annotated in the present or earlier volumes of the present bibliography (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Jowitt, E. and Walsh, C. (1977). Jowitt’s Dictionary of English Law, volume 2, L-Z, with bibliography, second edition. London: Sweet and Maxwell Limited.

JUNAID, S. A. H. al-,Report of the Meeting of Experts on Islamic Management Center, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute , 1995, 186 pp. Summary: Report of the meeting of experts on Islamic management Center of the International Islamic University jointly organized by the Islamic Research and Training Institute Jeddah and International Islamic University Malaysia at Kuala Lumpur during 27-29 May 1993. Deals with the possible role for the Management Center of the IIUM, which was being set up in those days (Muhammad Akram Khan).

 

 

 

K

Kabir Hassan,Rasem N Kayed, The Global Financial Crisis, Risk Management and Social Justice in Islamic Finance, ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance (English Journal),

Kader, A. (2003). Modernity, the Principles of Public Welfare (Maslaha) and the End Goals of Shari’a (Maqasid) in Muslim Legal thought. Islam and Christian- Muslim Relations, 14, no. 2.

KADER, S.A., The Law of Wakfs: An Analytical and Critical Study, New Delhi, Eastern Law House, 1999, 486 p.

Kadir, A. (2009). Corporate Governance Mechanism in Malaysia, Paper presented at the Intellectual Discourse organized by Faculty of Business and Accountancy, 18 March, Kuala Lumpur.

Kadri, A. H., (1980), ‘The Role and Significance of Ushr in Agricultural Taxation Policy in Muslim Countries’ in: Economic System of Islam, Karachi: National Bank of Pakistan, pp. 250-63. Also in: Gulaid,

KAFF, S. H. AL-, "Economic Challenge of the 21st Century and Islamic Economics" (Urdu) Tarjamanul Qur'an, Lahore, (125:5), May 1998, pp. 67-70. Summary: Summarizes the economic challenge of the 21st century in terms of globalization, privatization, and explosion of IT, role of World Trade Organization, and the international capital movements. Proposes a set of research topics and practical measures for the Muslim economists (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kahf,  Monzer  (1997): ‘Instruments  of  Meeting  Budget  Deficit  in Islamic Economy’ , Research Paper No.42, IRTI, IDB.

Kahf, M. (1994). Time Value of Money and Discounting in Islamic Perspective: Revisited, in Review of Islamic Economics, vol. 3, no. 2.

Kahf, M. (2004). Islamic Banks: The Rise of a New Power Alliance of Wealth and Shari’a Scholarship, in Clement M. Henry and Rodney Wilson (ed.), The Politics of Islamic Finance. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 17-36.

Kahf, M. (2006). Innovation and Risk Management in Islamic Finance: Shari’ah Considerations. Paper presented at the 7th Harvard International Forum on Islamic Finance, April 22-23, 2006.

Kahf, M. (n.d.). Islam‟s stance on commodities or futures market. Retrieved from http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503544954&pagename= IslamOnline_English-Ask_Scholar52FFatwaE%2FPrintFatwaE

Kahf, M. and Khan, T. (1409 AH). Principles of Islamic Financing: A Survey. IRTI/IDB.

KAHF, MONZER (ed.), Economics of Zakah, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1997, 697 pp. Summary: A compendium of fifteen papers (seven in Arabic) on various aspects of economics of zakah. Individual papers have been annotated in earlier volumes of this bibliography. The subjects covered are: zakah and economic aggregates, zakah in macro models of Islamic economy; socio-economic role of zakah and zakah and taxation (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics Vols. 1 & 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, 756 pp. Proceedings of the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August, 1991 under the auspices of Islamic Research and Training Institute and Islamic Foundation, Bangladesh. Summary: Contains 26 chapters in six parts. Part one deals with the Shari’ah foundations of Islamic economics. Part two studies methodology of Islamic economics. Part three looks into technical analysis of Islamic economics at macro and micro levels. Part four covers public and private finance. Part five deals with international economics from Islamic perspective. Part six deals with issues and problems connectedwith arising from research and teaching of Islamic economics. Individual chapters have been annotated in the present volume (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, "Potential Effects of Zakat on Government Budget", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Kuala Lumpur, (5:1), 1997, pp.67-86. Summary: Studies the potential direct and indirect effects of zakah implementation on the budget. Takes Pakistan as a case study. Concludes that there is a potential direct substitution effect of zakah in replacing certain items of the government budget that corresponds to the eight recipients of zakah. Hence the amount of zakah proceeds spent on them must reduce an equivalent amount in the budget, thus making it possible to release budgetary revenues for the social needs. Also there are potential indirect effects of zakah implementation on productivity and the ability to be taxed, on aggregate consumption and investment, on employment, and on the amenability of zakah to be a tool of government economic policy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, "The Concept of Ownership in Islam" in his Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol.2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, pp. 241-250. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991.

KAHF, MONZER, "The Use of Assets Ijara Bonds for Bridging the Budget Gap," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (4:2), May 1997, pp. 75-92. Summary: Explores the possibility of ijara-based financial instrument to meet the need for a fixed-return Shari’ah-compatible instrument. Proposes ijara-bonds as marketable Islamic financial instruments for resource mobilization in the public sector as well as an instrument for monetary policy. Private companies can equally use the ijara-bonds for resource mobilization (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, "Zakah and Obligatory Expenditures”, in his Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1998, pp. 527-540. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5August 1991. Summary: Discusses the issue of zakah and obligatory transfers in the Muslim economy. It is a first ever institution in human history for obligatory transfer of income and wealth from the rich to the poor. Zakah is a fiscal tool of the Islamic economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kahf, Monzer, (1980), The Calculation of Zakah for Muslims in North America, Plainfield, Indiana, The Muslim Students’ Association of the United State and Canada, 23 p.

Kahf, Monzer, (1986), Comments on S. Tag el-Din’s “Allocative and Stabilizing Functions of Zakat in an Islamic Economy”, Paper Presented at the International Seminar on Fiscal Policy and Development Planning in an Islamic State, Islamabad Kahf, Monzer (ed.), (1997), Economic of Zakah, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, 698 p.

Kahf, Monzer, (1989), “Zakat: Unresolved Issues in the Contemporary Fiqh”, Journal of Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-22. Reproduced in: Sadeq, A. M., et al. (eds.), (1991), Development and Finance in Islam, Selangor, Malaysia, International Islamic University Press, pp. 173-190.

Kahf, Monzer, (1995), “Applied Institutional Models for Zakah

KAHF, Monzer, “Contemporary Issues in Management of Investment Awqaf in Muslim Countries and Communities”, Kuala Lumpur, 40 p.

KAHF, MONZER, “The Economic Views of Taqi al Deen Ibn  Taimiyah”, Al Ittihad, (Indiana/Plainfield), 1981, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 9-21.

KAHF, MONZER, Instruments of Meeting Budget Deficit in Islamic Economy, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1997, 86 pp. Summary: Discusses the principles of public borrowing from Islamic perspective. Discusses various possible financial instruments involving sale, ijara, mudaraba, musharaka and debt for mobilizing resources, should an Islamic state face budget deficit. Contains several original ideas for meeting the challenge (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, Principles of Islamic Financing (A Survey), Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1992, 46 pp. Summary: Reviews literature on Islamic economics for deriving principles of Islamic financing. Section one concentrates on early works of the Muslim scholars. Section two reviews the contemporary literature on Islamic economics. Section three deals with justification of a return on financing. The last section derives conclusions (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, Principles of Islamic Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research Institution, 1992, 46 pp. Summary: It is survey of literature on Islamic finance. Part one reviews the early work of Muslim scholars especially commentaries on the Holy Qur'an. Part two reviews the relevant contemporary literature on Islamic economics. Part three deals with the justification of a return on financing in Islamic economic thinking (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, The Performance of the Institution of Zakah in Theory and Practice, 22 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by the International Islamic University Malaysia at Kuala Lumpur, during 9-12 August, 1999. Summary: Argues that the proceeds from zakah in the present day economy cannot be sufficient to meet needs of a modern day state for alleviating poverty. It would require supplement from other sources such as more taxes, infaq and waqf. Supports the main conclusion with data from several countries (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, MONZER, The Principle of Socioeconomic Justice in Contemporary Fiqh of Zakah, Iqtisad: Journal of Islamic Economics, Yogyakarta,  (1:1), April 1999, pp. 24-44. Summary: Presents an economic view of fiqh opinions on zakah and shows that some of them may not be consistent with social and economic justice. Argues that the majority of fiqh opinions of zakah do not take the principle of justice into consideration. The majority of wealthy people in any contemporary Muslim society are virtually exempt from zakah while the poor agricultural population is charged at a greater rate. Identifies some flaws in today's ijtehad and calls upon the role of specialized scholars in reconsidering this issue (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KAHF, Monzer, 'Towards the Revival of Awqaf - A few Fiqhi Issues to Reconsider', in: Proceedings of the Third Harvard University Forum on Islamic Finance, Cambridge, M.A, USA: Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, 2000, pp. 103-109.

KAHF, Monzer, Waqf and Its Application in North America, ISNA Plainfield, Indiana, USA, in print, 1998.

KAHF, MONZER, Zakah Management in Some Muslim Countries, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 2000, 54 pp. Summary: Reviews zakah management practices of Pakistan, Kuwait, Jordan and Egypt. Identifies, the problems and challenges and suggests solution for zakah administration in the present age (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KALLEK, CENGIZ, "Economic Views of Abu Ubayd” IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Kuala Lumpur, (6:1), 1998, pp. 1-22. Summary: Introduces Kitab al-Am wal by Imam Abu Ubayd. After a brief life sketch, analyses the contents and methodology of the book. Summarizes important ideas of the Imam (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KALLEK, CENGIZ, "Real Estate Market in Asr al-Sa'adah", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Kuala Lumpur, (5:1), 1997, pp. 1-38. Summary: Scrutinizes establishment and operation of the "real estate market" in the Muslim world during the second half of the 7th century together with factors which played their part in that, like demography, economic structure, tax considerations, etc. Also tries to relate, in order to find out real rates, the increase in land prices to that of camels which may be held, as an index for that time period (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KALLEK, CENGIZ, "Socio-Politico-Economic Sovereignty and the Market of Medina", Journal of Islamic Economics, Kuala Lumpur, (4:1-2), 1995, pp.1-14. Summary: The Prophet signed a treaty with the Jews, Christians and non-Muslims of Medina. He set up the market of Medina and promulgated two laws: 1) No taxes would be imposed on it; 2) No enclosures would be monopolized within it. He also established the institution of hisba to oversee the market. We should also establish chambers of commerce, trade unions, and economic communities, where the Muslims would be dominant (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kamal, Abdul Aziz, (1979), “Zakat”, in: Everyday Fiqh, Lahore: Islamic Publication Ltd., pp. 7-60.

Kamal, Abdulaziz, (1991), “Zakat: The Prescribed Charity”, Al-Islam (Nairabi), Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 16-20.

Kamal, H., & Al Sudairy, S. (2006). SABIC Sukūk: The Debut in Saudi Arabia. Deal of the

Kamal, Omar M. (2001). Stock Investing from an Islamic Perspective and the Uncertainty of Gharar. Ph.D, University of Coventry, UK.

Kamal, R. M. (2008). Standardisation, the Password to Progress. Islamic Finance Asia, August/September: 28-30.

Kamali, M. H. (1989). ‘Sources, Nature and Objectives of Shariah.’ The Islamic Quarterly, 215-35.

Kamali, M. H. (1993). ‘Fundamental Rights of the Individual: An Analysis of Haqq (Right) in Islamic Law.’ The Islamic Journal of Social Sciences, 10:3, 340-66.

Kamali, M. H. (1999). Law and Society: The Interplay of Revelation and Reason in Sharīʿah. In John L. Esposito (ed.), The Oxford History of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 107-108.

Kamali, M. H. (1999). Maqasid Al-Shari’ah: The Objectives of Islamic Law. Islamic Studies Occasional Papers 33. Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University (Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University.

Kamali, M. H. (1999). Prospects for an Islamic derivative market in Malaysia. Thunderbird International Business Review, 4, no. 5: 523-540.

Kamali, M. H. (2000). Issues in the Legal Theory of Usul and Prospects for Reform. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM.

Kamali, M. H. (2000). The Sharia Perspective on Futures, in Siddiqi, Asma (ed) Anthology of Islamic Banking. London: Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance.

Kamali, M. H. (2002). Islamic Commercial Law An Analysis of Futures and Options. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society.

Kamali, M. H. (2002). Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society.

Kamali, M. H. (2006). An Introduction to Sharīʿah. Selangor: Ilmiah Publishers.

Kamali, M. H. (2007). A Shariah Analysis of Issues in Islamic Leasing. J.KAU: Islamic Econ., Vol. 20 (1), pp 3-22.

Kamali, M. H. (2007). Commodity futures: an Islamic legal analysis. Thunderbird International Business Review, 49, no. 3: 309-339.

Kamali, M. H. (2008). Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah Made Simple. Washington: IIIT.

Kamali, M. H. Islamic Commercial Law: An Analysis of Options. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 14, no. 3 (1997): 17-37.

KAMALI, M. HASHIM, "The Shari’ah Perspective on Futures," in Asma Siddiqi(ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 483-489. Summary: Argues that the contemporary understanding of futures trading by the Shari’ah scholars and their ruling to prohibit it requires re-consideration. The futures trading does not involve riba, gambling or any other type of exploitation. The futures trading should be considered lawful. However, we should develop sufficient safeguards against excessive speculation or any other means of misuse (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kamaluddin, K. K., (1991), Zakat Tax Accounting For Corporate Enterprises, Sokoto (Nigeria), Usman Dan Fodiyo University, Ph.D. Thesis, 379 p.

KAMARUDDIN, A. R., "OIC Information Systems Network: Information Highway for Member Countries", Journal of Economic Cooperation Among Islamic Countries, Ankara, (17:1-2), Jan. 1996, pp. 61-86. Summary: The OICIS-NET is a project aimed at setting up a global information network which will eventually interlink the national, regional, and international information systems and services. Presents the project in terms of its nature, purpose, structure and main features. Describes the steps taken by Islamic Development Bank in implementing the project in accordance with the strategy and guidelines adopted in April 1994 (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kamaruddin. (2010). Population in Malaysia. Presentation delivered at the World Demographic Forum. Organised by Swiss Re.

Kamarul Ariffin Mohd Jamil,Musharakah  Project Financing,ISRA Event Articles,

KAMEL, SALEH, Development of Islamic Banking Activity: Problems and Prospects, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute , 1998, 24 pp. Summary: Reviews the evolution of Islamic banking and thinks that it has not achieved its real objective. The Islamic bankers have mainly aped the Western banking operations and have done little innovative work. If it goes like that Islamic banking will wither away. Suggests that Islamic banks should create a mechanism of control by depositors. The legal framework of Islamic banks should also undergo a change. It should discard the form of joint stock companies and adopt the form of partnership (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kāmil, ʿUmar ʿAbd Allāh. (2006). Al-Qawāʿid al- Fiqhiyyah al-Kubrā wa Atharuhā fī al-Muʿāmalāt al-Māliyyah. Egypt: Maktabat al-Turāth al-Islāmī.

Kamil, W. A. (2008). Introduction to Sukuk. In R. Ratings, Malaysian Sukuk Market Handbook - Your Guide to the Malaysian Islamic Capital Market (pp. 21-49). Kuala Lumpur: RAM Rating.

Karbhari, Y., Naser, K. and Shahin, Z. (2004). ‘Problems and challenges facing the Islamic banking system in the West: The case of the UK’, Thunderbird International Business Review, 46 (5), 521-543.

Karim A. A. (2000). Incentive Compatible Constrains for Islamic: Banking Some Lessons From Bank Muamalat, Conference Papers, Fourth International Conference on Islamic Economics and Banking. Loughborough University, UK, August 13-15, 2000.

Karim, A. A. (2001). International Accounting Harmonisation, Banking Regulation, and Islamic Banks. The International Journal of Accounting, 36, 169,193.

KARIM, ADIWARMAN A., Optimal Contract of Islamic Banking: A Survey of Literature, 24 pp. Unpublished. Paper presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by the IIUM, Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August, 1999. Summary: Surveys the literature on optimal contract between borrower and bank. The last part argues that mark-up financing, which is akin to interest-based financing, provides a second option to banks, besides profit-loss sharing techniques. The real question is: Which proportion of financing is optimal for a business firm? The answer is that the firm should try to arrive at an optimal mix, given its constraints in real life (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KARIM, RIFAAT ABDEL, "Islamic Finance and Standardization of Accounting for Islamic Financial Institutions,"    New Horizon, London, (93), Nov.1999, pp. 5-7. Summary: Argues that with the proliferation of Islamic financial institutions, there was a great need for standardizing accounting practices. The Accounting and Auditing Organization of Islamic  Financial  Institutions  fulfilled  this  need.  Summarizes  the  work  done  by the Organization (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kartajaya, H. & Sula, M. S. (2006). Shariah Marketing. Bandung Indonesia: Penerbit Mizan.

Karuvelil, K. Z. (2000). Islamic Finance: Sustaining Success Islamic Finance: Local Challenges, Global Opportunities - Proceedings of the Third Harvard University Forum on Islamic Finance (pp. 155-158). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University.

Kashyap, A. K., Rajan, R., & Stein, J. (2008). The Global Roots of the Current Financial Crisis and its Implications for Regulation. Paper presented at the 5th ECB Central Banking Conference, November. Retrieved from http://www.ecb.int/events/pdf/conferences/cbc5/Rajan.pdf?17bea4624be62b2 7d96a6a290c65da52

Kassim, Z. (2012). Challenges of Developing Pension Schemes by Takāful Providers, Presentation delivered at the International Takāful Summit, 10-12 July, 2012, Carlton Jumeira Hotel. London.

Kassim, Z. (2013). Tabarru – An Actuary’s Dilemma. Kuala Lumpur: Actuarial Partners.

KATO, Hiroshi, “The Waqf as a System of Economic Integration”, in The Urbanism in Islam: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Urbanism in Islam, Tokyo, Japan. 1994, pp. 221-238.

KATO, Kazuhide, “Waqf-Names in Central Asia” in Urbanism in Islam, The Proceeding of th 2nd International Conference on Urbanism in Islam, Tokyo, 1994, pp. 239-246.

KATOUZIAN,   H.,   “Riba   and   Interest   in   An   Islamic   Economy”,Mediterranean, 1981, Vol. 14.

Kaur, Bisant. (1994). Market Efficiency in Palm Oil & Cocoa Crisis. Master’s Thesis. Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Kausar Abbas and Hamayun Afzal,The Patronage of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of COMSATS University, Pakistan,ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance (English Journal),

Kausar Abbas, Dr. Dzuljastri Abdul Razak and Dr. Norma Saad,The Perception Of Micro-Entrepreneurs And Pettytraders Towards Conventional And Islamic Microfinance: A Case Study Of Pakistan,ISRA Event Articles,

Kaynak, E. and Harcar, T. (2005). ‘American consumers’ attitudes towards commercial banks’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23 (1), 73-89.

Kaynak, E. and Whiteley, A. (1999). ‘Retail bank marketing in Western Australia’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17 (5), 221-232.

KAYOKO, H., “Compilation Process of Manuscripts Called Vakfiye of Sultan Mehmed the Conquerer, Annals of Japan Association for Middle East Studies 1988, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 74-109.

KAYOKO, Hayashi, “The Vakif Institution in 16th Century Istanbul”, The Memoris of Research Department of Toyo Bunko, Japan, Vol. 50. 1992, pp. 93-113.

Kazarian, E.G. (1993). Islamic versus Traditional Banking: Financial Innovation in Egypt. Boulder: West View Press.

KAZMI, AQDAS ALI, "First step Toward Riba-free Economy," Daily Dawn, Karachi, 12 June 99. Summary: Defines the term riba and concludes that it is equivalent to exploitative and usurious rates of interest. The prevalent commercial interest is not riba. Those who are trying to equate the two are in the process of turning the wheel of progress back by a few centuries (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KEEN, STEVE, "From Prohibition to Depression: The Western Attitude to Usury," in Proceedings of International Conference On the Theme of Accounting, Commerce and Finance: The Islamic Perspective organized by the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, during 18-29 February ,1997, pp. 55-74. Summary: Traces the history of usury in the West. Argues that usury was criticized and condemned in the West but gradually it became acceptable. Introduces the theory of Fisher (1930) on interest. Argues that the modern economies under capitalism are susceptible to crises due to over-indebtedness. The fact that interest remains due even though the enterprise has not made any profit, leads to mass scale bankruptcies. Because of this, the ancient criticism on usury is still valid. As compared to this, the Islamic concept of profit sharing saves the enterprises from bankruptcy. It also saves the economy from collapse (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Keillor, B. D., Parker, R. S. & Pettijon, C. E. (1999), Sales Force Performance Satisfaction and Aspects of Relational Selling: Implication for Sales Managers, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(6), 101-115.

Keller, K. L. (2000). ‘Building and managing corporate brand equity’, in Schultz, M., M.J. Hatch, and M.H. Larsen (eds.), The expressive organization: Linking identity, reputation, and the corporate brand, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 115- 137.

KENNEDY, CHARLES, "Judicial Activism After Zia: Toward Prohibition of Riba", in his Islamization of La ws and Economy, Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 1996, pp.127-142. Also published as "Judicial Activism and Islamization after Zia: Towards the Prohibition of Riba," in Charles H. Kennedy, ed., Pakistan: 1992 (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993), pp. 57-74. Summary: Gives a background of judicial activism in Pakistan. Discusses the judgment given by Justice Tanzilur Rahman on riba. Concludes that this decision has created a real dilemma for the Government and has a threat for the economic system of Pakistan (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kennington, C., Hill, J., Rakowska, A. (1996). ‘Consumer selection criteria for banks in Poland’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 14 (4), 35-55.

Kester (1986),“Capital and Ownership Structure: A Coparison of US and Japanese Manufacturing Corporations,”  Financial Management, Vol 15 Spring, 1986.

Kettani, H., 2010 World Muslim Population Proceedings of the 8th Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 2010. Available at: :http://www.pupr.edu/hkettani/papers/HICAH2010.pdf

Keynes, J. M. (1930/1971). A Treatise on Money, 2nd volume: The applied theory of money, in: The collected works of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. VI. London: Macmillan/Cambridge University Press.

Keynes, J. M. (1935). The General Theory of Employment, Interest, And Money. Available at <http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/k/k44g/ k44g.zip>. Access date: February 17, 2014.

KFH Research Ltd. (2011, August 25). Basel III Impact on Islamic Banking. Islamic Finance Research.

Khadduri, Majid (tr.) (n.d.), “the Zakat (Legal Alms), in: al-Shafi`i's Risala (Treatise on the foundation of Islamic Jurisprudence, n.p., Islamic Text Society, pp.163-65.

KHAKI, M. ASLAM, "Ashiya ka Tabadala aur Maujudah Currency," (Urdu) (Exchange of Goods and the Prevalent Currency) Nawa-i-Qanun, Islamabad, (2:10), Oct.1991, pp. 53-61. Summary: Discusses implications of inflation for purchasing power. Argues that indexation of loans to inflation is necessary for doing justice to creditors (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khaled Morad Amer and Ninasrin Radenarmad,Innovation In Islamic Banking: The Practical Application Of Forward Ijarah And Its Issues And Challenges,ISRA Event Articles,

Khalid Ferdous Howladar,THE USE OF CONVENTIONAL RATING METHODOLOGIES FOR SUKUK (ISRA-TR REPORT 2017),,

Khalid S. Al-Rajhi,Robert A. Paton,Samer R. Jan,Value Co-Creation in Shari'ah-Compliant Banking: A Saudi Arabian Case Study,ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance (English Journal),

Khalid, Abdul Fatah bin Haji, (1988), “Zakat” in: Islamic Law and Land in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, Edinburgh, University of Edinbursh, Ph.D. Thesis, pp. 290-316.

Khalil, A.A., Rickwood C. & Murinde V. (2002). Evidence on Agency-Contractual Problems in Mudaraba Financing Operations by Islamic Banks, in Iqbal M. & Llewellyn D. T. (eds.). Islamic Banking and Finance: New Perspective on Profit-Sharing and Risk, UK: Edward Elgar.

Khalīl. (1426 AH). Mukhtaṣar Khalīl. Cairo: Dār al- Ḥadīth, Vol. 1.

Khalīl. (n.d.). Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar al-Khalīl. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr li al-Ṭibaʿah.

Khan  S.  Mohsin  and  Abbas  Mirakhor  (Edt)  (1987);  ‘Theoretical Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance’, The Institute for Research and Islamic Studies, Houston, Texas.

Khan and Ahmed, (2001) Risk Management– An Analysis of Issues in Islamic Financial Industry, Islamic Development Bank-Islamic Research and Training Institute, Occasional Paper (No.5). Jeddah.

Khan,   S.   Mohsin,   (1986),“Islamic   Interest   free   Banking:   A Theoretical Analysis” ; IMF Staff Papers Vol. 33, No 1 pp 1-27.

KHAN,  ABDUL  RAHMAN,  “Furhter  Elucidation  of  Technical  Matters Discussed in Ibn al Awwam’s Kitab of Filahah”, Islamic Culture, Vol. 28, April 1954, Vol. 29, Oct. 1955, Vol. 30, Jan. 1956.

Khan, A. (1988). Commodity exchange and stock exchange in Islamic economy. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 5, no. 1: 91-114.

Khan, Abdul Jabbar, (1989), “Comments” on Imtiazi’s paper ‘Organization of Zakah: The Pakistan Model and Experience’ in: I.A. Imtiazi et al. (eds.), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB, pp. 177-86.

KHAN, ABDUL RAHMAN, “Ibn al Awwam’s Kitab al Filahah”, Islamic Culture, Vol. 24, Oct. 1950.

KHAN, Ahmedullah, Commentary on The Law of Wakf in India, (The Wakf Act 1995), Hyderabad, Asia law House (2nd ed.), 2000, 408 p.

KHAN, Ateeque, "Administrative of Waqfs During Muslim Rule in India: Some legal and Historical Sidelights", Religion and Law Review,1994. Vol. 3, pp.76-88.

KHAN, Ateeque, “The Wakf (Amendment) Act 1984 – A Plea for Reconsideration”, Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly, March 1985, Vol. V., No. 1, pp. 85-90.

KHAN, Ateeque, A., “The Waqf Act 1995: Towards Better Administration of Awqaf,” ”, in Rashid, S. Khalid(ed), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit . pp. 113-124.

KHAN, Ateeque, 'Waqf Administration in UP - a legislative retrospect', Islam and the Modern Age, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1990, pp. 53-75.

KHAN, Ateeque, 'Waqf in UP: A Socio-Historic Perspective’, in Islamic Culture, January 1990, Vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 39-60.

KHAN, ATIQ-UZ-ZAFAR, "Insurance and Takaful: Some Clarifications," Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (16:4), Oct.1999, pp. 41-47. Summary: Reviews the article of Masum Billah (JIBF, 14:2, April 1997). Criticizes the writer for creating confusion between Islamic takaful and present insurance. Supports the former and rejects the latter (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, Ghulam Ishaq, (1985), “Zakat and Ushr Cardinal Pillars of Islam”,Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Vol. 2, No. 3, July-Sept, pp. 15-24.

KHAN, Imtiyaz Ahmad, What is Wakf? Delhi, Idarah-I-Adbiyyat, Delhi, 1988, 92 p.

KHAN, Istafa, The Law of Waqfs in India, Lucknow, New Law Agency, 2000, 263 p.

Khan, M. A. (1994). An Introduction to Islamic Economics. Islamabad: IIIT and IPS.

Khan, M. A. (1994). Rural Development Through Islamic Banks. Leicesters: The Islamic Foundation.

Khan, M. A. (2005). Time Value of Money, in Ghazali, Abood et al. (eds.). An Introduction to Islamic Economics and Finance. Kuala Lumpur: CERT Publications Sdn. Bhd.

Khan, M. A. Inflation and the Islamic Economy: A Closed Economy Model, in Mohamed Arif (ed). Monetary and Fiscal Economics of Islam. Jeddah: King Abdulaziz University Press.

Khan, M. Akram (1992); ‘Islamic Banking in Pakistan: The Future Path’, All Pakistan Islamic Education Congress, Lahore.

Khan, M. Akram (2003), 'Zakah Accounting and Auditing Principles - Rules and Experience in Pakistan', Islamic Economic Studies, (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), Vol.10, No.2, March, pp. 29-43.

Khan, M. Akram (2005), "Comment on Abdul Azim Islahi and M.Obaidullah: Zakah on Stocks: Some Unsettled Issue", Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economic, Jeddah,, Vol.18, No.1, pp. 41-42.

Khan, M. Akram, (1974), “Modern Taxation and Zakat”, Islamic Education, Lahore, Vol. 7, No. 3, May-June, pp. 7-15.

Khan, M. Akram, (1993), “An Evaluation of Zakah Control System in Pakistan”, Islamic Studies, Islamabad, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter, pp. 413-32.

Khan, M. Akram, (2000), “Some Accounting Issues Relating to Zakah”, Islamic Studies, Islamabad, Vol. 39, No.1, pp. 103-120.

KHAN, M. AKRAM, Al Hisbah and The Islamic Economy” in   Proceedings of the  International  Conference  of  Muslim  Scholars,  Karachi:     Printing Company of Pakistan, 1981, pp. 68-80.

KHAN, M. ALI, "Globalization of Financial Market and Islamic Financial",    Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (8:1), Oct. 2000, pp. 19-67. Summary: Reflects on implications of financial globalization for Islamic financial institutions. Presents the 18th century case for and against commerce, the   19th century case for and against a central institution acting as lender of the last resort and modern theoretical developments in finance and insurance based on the law of law numbers and centered around the concept of arbitrage, naive and efficient diversification of risk, moral hazard and adverse selection. Argues that understanding of globalization would help the future development of Islamic financial institutions (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, M. F. (1991). Time Value of Money and Discounting in Islamic Perspective, in Review of Islamic Economics, vol. 1, no. 2.

Khan, M. F. (1995). Essays in Islamic Economics. Leicester: The Islamic Foundation.

Khan, M. F. (1995). Islamic Futures and Their Markets With Special Reference to Their Role in Developing Rural Financial Market. Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute.

Khan, M. F. (1997). Islamic futures markets as a means for mobilizing resources for development. Islamic financial instruments for public sector resource mobilization, ed. A. Ausaf and T. Khan, 133-161. Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute.

Khan, M. F. (2003). Guaranteeing Investment Deposits in Islamic banking System. J.KAU, Islamic Economics, Vol. 16, No.1, pp. 45-52 Learning Asia Pte Ltd.

Khan, M. F. (2004). Theory of Islamic Banking, Seminar on Orientation in Islamic Economics

KHAN, M. FAHIM (ed.), Countertrade: Policies and Practices in OIC Countries, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute , 1995, 250 pp. Summary: Papers and proceedings of a seminar on countertrade jointly organized by the Islamic Research and Training Institute of the Islamic Development Bank Jeddah and the East Export Trade Center, Istanbul, held at Istanbul during 19-21 December 1989. Besides a conceptual paper, contains five case studies. The case studies pertain to Pakistan, Turkey, Indonesia and Malaysia. The last chapter discusses the role of IDB in promoting countertrade among members of the OIC (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM (ed.), Islamic Financial Institutions, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, 176 pp. Summary: Proceedings of a seminar held in Jakarta, Indonesia in September 1990. Consists of three conceptual papers and four case studies. The conceptual papers deal with concept and operation of Islamic banks, practical requirements for establishing an Islamic bank, and development of financial institutions in an Islamic framework. The case studies deal with al-Baraka experience in the UK, survey of contemporary experiences of Islamic banks, Faysal Islamic bank, Bahrain and an evaluation of al-Baraka group of companies (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, "Cost of Capital for an Islamic Firm: The Case of the IDB", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (4:1), Dec. 1996, pp. 68-72. Summary: Gives a general formula for working out the cost of capital for an Islamic bank. Mathematical. For economists only (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, "Investment Demand Function in Profit-loss Sharing Based System" in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, pp. 313-330. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991.

KHAN, M. FAHIM, "Mobilization of Funds on Islamic Principles‟, in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 388-391. Summary: The government can mobilize funds by commercializing its activities, obtaining infrastructure-related assets on ijara, procuring goods on the basis of mark-up. It would require developing suitable institutional arrangements for adopting these means. However, in the interim period, it can adopt indexation or providing some compensation as a gift to those who lend money to the government on interest-free basis (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, "Production, Organization and Employment Strategy in an Islamic Economy", in R.I. Molla, et.el. (eds.), Frontiers and Mechanics of Islamic Economics, Sokoto: Sokoto University, 1988, pp.91-106. Summary: Discusses organization of the Islamic economy. Argues that the Islamic economy encourages enterprise and discourages rents and debt-finance. Proposes a strategy for the present-day Muslim economies for encouraging enterprises (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, M. Fahim, (a) ‘Time Value of Money and its Discounting in Islamic Perspective’, Monograph, International Institute of Islamic Economics,  International  Islamic  University,  Islamabad,  1987,  (b) ‘Financial  Modernization  in  21st   Century and Challenge for Islamic Banking’,  International Journal of Islamic Financial Services, Vol.1, No.3 (1999); (c)  ‘Comparative Economics of Some Islamic Financing Techniques’, IRTI, IDB, Research Paper No. 12, 1991; (d) ‘Islamic Futures and Their Markets’, IRTI, IDB, Research Paper No. 32, 1995.

KHAN, M. FAHIM, “Economic Concept of Ibn Taimiyah by A.A. Islahi”, The Muslim World Book Review (Review Article). Leicester (U.K.): The Islamic Foundation, 1989, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 24-25.

KHAN, M. FAHIM, Comparative Economics of Some Islamic Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1991, 48 pp. Summary: Describes salient features of musharaka, mudaraba, ijara, murabaha and bai' salam. Discusses the economic role of these financing techniques and the behavior of clients and financiers in respect of each of these techniques. Infers economic implications of these techniques from a macroeconomic angle (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, Human Resources Mobilization through Profit-Loss-Sharing Based Financial System, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1992, 64 pp. Summary: Argues that the Islamic financial system has a built-in powerful model of human resource mobilization than the existing models of employment and human resources mobilization discussed in conventional economics. Proposes the establishment of a development bank  for  human resource  mobilization. An appendix describes  the  Islamic  financial system in brief (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, Islamic Benchmark as Alternative to LIBOR/Interest Rates, 36 pp . Unpublished. Mimeo. [ n.d. perhaps, 1999] Summary: Discusses need for developing a benchmark like that of interest rate or LIBOR for use as a discounting factor in the Islamic framework. Proposes that such a benchmark can be developed by using the rate of return being paid by banks to depositors or by using an index like that of DJIM on equity capital. The former can be used for investment through Islamic banks and the latter for investment through stock market (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, Islamic Capital Market, 28 pp. Unpublished. presented to the Islamic Banking Conference organized by the Islamic Society of North America during July 17-18, 1998. Summary: Identifies the need for developing a capital market for those Islamic investors who like to have a fixed income. Proposes a number of financial instruments carrying fixed income. These instruments revolve around the concept of securitizing income from ijara, murabaha and other similar Islamic contracts. Makes several proposals for institutional development like Islamic Investment Opportunities Information Centre, Islamic Corporate Trust, Islamic Entrepreneurs and Capital Development Centre, Research and Training Centre, etc (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, Islamic Futures and Their Markets, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 2000, 76 pp. Summary: Critically reviews operations of futures market in the contemporary Western world. Points out that the Islamic contracts of bai' salam, bai' istisna' and bai' ju'ala have the potential to accommodate development of an Islamic futures market. Proposes a mechanism to develop such a market and argues that it will be free from the shortcomings of the Western style futures market (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, M. FAHIM, Social Dimensions of Islamic Banks, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Oct. 1997, 75 pp. Mimeo. Summary: Argues that the distinctive feature of the Islamic banks is their contribution toward social uplift of the societies and to promote justice and benevolence. Analyses the data of 9 Islamic banks which responded to the author's questionnaire and concludes that there is a strong case for inviting the attention of the Islamic banks toward their social responsibility. Proposes a framework to build this aspect of the Islamic banks (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, M. S. and Mirakhor, A. (1984). Theoretical Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance. New York: Book Dist Centre.

Khan, M. S. and Mirakhor, A. (1987). ‘The Framework and Practice of Islamic Banking.’ In M. S. Khan & A. Mirakhor (Eds.) Theoretical Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance. Texas, USA: The Institute for Research and Islamic Studies.

KHAN, M. S., An Unpublished Treatise of Miskawaih on Justice or Risalah fi Mahiat al Adl li-Miskawaih, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1964.

KHAN, MANSOOR H., "Designing an Islamic Model for Project Finance", New Horizon, London, (74), April 1998, pp. 3-6. Summary: Applying the Islamic concepts of bai' salam and bai’ , explains how an independent power producer (IPP) can avail of finance in the Islamic framework. The model is applicable to other investment proposals also (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, Mehr Muhammad Nawaz, (1989), “Zakat Institution” in: Islamic and Other Systems, Lahore, Islamic Book Service, pp. 220-42.

KHAN, MOHSIN S., "The Challenges for Islamic Banks," New Horizon, London, (62), April 1997, pp. 9-11. Summary: Examines three areas: analytical or theoretical aspects of Islamic banking; central banking and experience of Islamic banking. Enumerates challenges in implementing the Islamic banking (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, Muhammad Akram (1995), "Legal, Administrative, and Financial

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Eliminating Interest from the Economy: Do We Need a Public Law?”, New Horizon, London, (109), May-Jun 2000, pp. 21-30. Summary: Argues that riba is an economic phenomenon. It should be eliminated from the economy through economic imperatives. It is not a legal phenomenon. The Shari’ah did not promulgate any law for prohibiting it. Instead, it should be left to the free will of the people. The state should try to eliminate it through an economic mechanism. It should facilitate development and evolution of Islamic financial system and people should be persuaded by the operation of Islamic financial institutions to adopt t hem and to leave riba-based transactions. Proposes institutional mechanism for eliminating riba (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Islamic Banking in Pakistan: The Management of Change," New Horizon, London, (77), July 98, pp. 3-7. Summary: Analyses reasons for failure of the program of Islamization of financial institutions in Pakistan. Argues that the whole program should be conceived in a long term scenario and modern concepts of change management should be applied to it. Proposes to create a high-powered multi-pronged Commission for Islamization of economy with a powerful organizational set up (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Islamic Economics: The State of the Art", American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Herndon, V A ., (16:2), 1999, pp. 89-103. Summary: Enumerates achievements of Islamic economics during the last two decades. Identifies shortcomings of the method, scope and approach. Thinks that the international scene is quite conducive to ideas presented by the Islamic economics and that the Muslim economists should avail of this opportunity and do serious hard work for promoting their cause. Proposes an agenda for research in the future (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Performance Auditing for Islamic Banks," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (5:1-2), Nov 1997- April 1998, pp. 23-36. Summary: Performance auditing  holds a promise for the  Islamic banks  which can adopt it for examining  the  accounts  of their clients  and  assess  the  truth and  fairness  of  their accounts. Performance in real sector can tell the banks if their clients have managed the business in the most economical, efficient and effective manner. Another application of performance auditing is that the Islamic banks can use it as a tool for enhancing their own effectiveness (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Role of Supreme Audit Institutions in Shaping the Islamic Economy in the 21st Century", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Malaysia, (9:1),   2001,   pp. 77-98. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by the IIUM, Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August,1999. Summary: Enumerates  the characteristics of the  Islamic economy. Points  out that  the  Islamic economy would require an effective supreme audit ins titution with an expanded scope of mandate. The expansion in the scope of mandate would include performance auditing, audit of privatization, audit of public debt, evaluation of policies, audit of expenditure management systems, evaluation of regulators and environmental audits (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Some Accounting Issues Relating to Zakah", Islamic Studies, Islamabad, (39:1), Spring 2000, pp. 103-120. Summary: Argues that the contemporary interpretation of zakah law leads to various distortions, and makes  the  impact  of  law  regressive.  There  is  need  for  ijtehad. Proposes  several innovative steps to levy zakah on income and wealth of individuals and business firms. Shows calculations by hypothetical examples (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Strategy for the Eliminatio n of Riba", The Qur'anic Horizons, Lahore, (2:4), Oct-Dec 1997, pp. 66-67. Summary: Comments on Sayyid Tahir's paper on the same subject and published in the same journal (2:3, July-Sep 1997). Argues that gradualism should be adopted in eliminating the interest from the economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, "Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level, " in R. I. Molla, et.el. (eds.), Frontiers and Mechanics of Islamic Economics, Sokoto: University of Sokoto, 1988, pp. 65-76. Summary: Critically reviews the present approach toward teaching of Islamic economics as an adjunct of conventional economics. Identifies the objective of developing Islamic economics as a separate discipline and suggests an approach to Islamize the existing conventional economics (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, Muhammad Akram, (1990), Organising Zakah, Lahore, All Pakistan Islamic Education Congress, 38 p.

KHAN, MUHAMMAD AKRAM, Managing Islamic Economic Development in Pakistan: The Case of Zakah and Interest-free Banking in Pakistan, 1998, 27 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the First International Conference on Islamic Economi c Development Management organized by Univeristi Sains Malaysia during 8-10 December 1998. Summary: Evaluates the implementation of zakah and interest-free banking in Pakistan. Concludes that both the programs have been quite unsuccessful. Gives suggestions to remedy the situation and to proceed further in the right direction (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, S. H. (2009). Why Tawarruq Needs To Go. Islamic Finance News, 6(35).

KHAN, Salar M., “Awqaf and Social Condition of Muslim in Nepal, in Rashid, S. Khalid (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit., pp. 219-228.

KHAN, SHER NAUROZE, "Sud aur Insurance: Kitabiyat,"(Urdu) (A Bibliography of Interest and Insurance) Fikro Nazar, Islamabad, (36:1), Jul-Sep 1998, pp. 89-136.

KHAN, SHUJAAT A., "Two Pathways to Development: Capitalist vs. Islamic Approach", Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XXI: 2), April-June 1998, pp. 7-16. Summary: Examines capitalist and Islamic approaches to development in historical perspective. Each approach is grounded in its respective world view. The capitalist approach is materialistic. The Muslim countries have adopted the capitalist approach with similar consequences as the Western countries have faced. The paper does not construct a development model nor does it give any analytical framework. However, it delineates the two approaches. In the final analysis, it is not the search for technical solutions that is of primary importance. It is the political will that is of importance. The Muslim countries should demonstrate the will to adopt the Islamic approach and benefit from it (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khan, T. & Ahmed. H. (2001). Risk Management: An Analysis of Issues in Islamic Financial Industry. Islamic Research and Training Institute working paper, available at http://www.irti.org/publications/ publications_english6.htm

Khan, T. M. (2007). Law of Waqf in Islam. New Delhi: Pentagon Press.


KHAN, TARIQULLAH, " Islamizing Public Debts: Challenges and Opportunities in Pakistan," New Horizon, London, (105), Dec 2000-Jan 2001, pp. 3-4, 8. Summary: In the background of heavy public debt of Pakistan suggest an Islamic strategy for converting the interest-based debt debts into Islamic investments. Proposes that the government may issue securities backed by specific assets like roads, power houses, air ports. The holders of debt should be issued these securities. The owners will then lease back these assets to the government for a fixed lease money. The new system will enable valuation of public assets. It will introduce a sort of economic discipline as each liability will have to be identified against some asset. The system will help develop capital markets (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, TARIQULLAH, "Demand for and Supply of Mark -up and PLS Funds in Islamic Banking: Some Alternative Explanations," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (3:1),  Dec 1995,  pp. 39-78. Summary: Profit-loss sharing (PLS) and mark-up are the two parent principles of Islamic financing. The use of PLS is limited and that of mark-up is dominant in the Islamic banks. Several studies provide different explanations for the phenomenon. The dominant among these is the moral hazard hypothesis. The paper gives some alternative explanations. The discussion is based on both demand and supply considerations. The central conclusion is that mark-up is consistent with firm's preference to re-invest profits in their own growth. It implies that PLS instruments which can allow profit retention by the user of funds and redeem consequently, could be more popular, particularly among risk-averse start-up firms (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, TARIQULLAH, "Islamic Quasi Equity (Debt) Instruments and the Challenge of Balance Sheet Hedging: An Exploratory Analysis," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (7:1-2), Oct 1999-April 2000, pp. 1-34. Summary: Debt creation by deferring payment on sales is a predominant form of financing, and is allowed by the Shari’ah. However, sale of debts through conventional procedures is prohibited in Islamic finance. Explores Islamic quasi equity (debt) instruments and argues that such instruments can empower the Islamic financial system to manage important risks and enhance the provision of long-term funds. The premises discussed are based on sale of debts against real assets, which facilitates embedded options and convertible Islamic financial instruments (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, TARIQULLAH, Interest-free Alternatives for External Resource Mobilization (With Special Reference to Pakistan), Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1997, 97 pp. Summary: Discusses the position of indebtedness of Pakistan as in 1996. Proposes that external finance should be mobilized on interest-free basis. The most preferred mode is istisna. Discusses various variants of istisna’ that can be adopted in attracting foreign investment in Pakistan (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, TARIQULLAH, Practices and Performance of Modaraba Companies: A Case Study of Pakistan's Experience, Jeddah: Islamic Research and training Institute, 1996, 143 pp. Summary: Explains the law of mudaraba companies in the context of capital in Pakistan. Discusses salient features and polices of mudaraba companies in Pakistan. The data are up to year 1994. Analyses the performance of various mudaraba companies with the help of ratio analysis. Develops a reward for risk model with reference to mudaraba companies. Includes full text of the law of mudaraba in Pakistan (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, TARIQULLAH, Redeemable Islamic Financial Instruments and Capital Participation in Enterprises, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute , 1995, 69pp. Summary: Discusses the economic implications of classical concepts of shirka and mudaraba and argues that these techniques are not suitable for a present day going concern. They create problems of ownership structure that is most disliked by the existing owners. To overcome the problem, musharaka and mudaraba funds should be made available on redeemable basis so that the users of funds return the investment over a period agreed in advance. The providers of fund would share profit or loss in proportion to the funds invested during a given period (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, TARIQULLAH, Teaching Programs in Islamic Economics, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1990, 38 pp. Summary: Gives an overview of the courses on Islamic economics offered by various universities. Suggests a number of additional courses with proposed readings. A useful source of information for researchers and teachers (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, WAQAR MASUD, Islamization of Financial Sector: Role and Performance of Islamic Financial Institutions Operating in Pakistan, 1998, 19 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the Conference on Islamic Corporate Finance organized by Centre for Islamic Economics, Karachi during 21-22 November 1998. Summary: Traces the history and evolution of Islamic banking in Pakistan. Discusses the failure and its causes. Draws lessons for the future strategy. Emphasizes that the effort should be comprehensive and determined (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAN, ZAFAR AHMAD, Islamic Banking and its Operations, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, 145 pp. Summary: A practical handbook on Islamic banking, it explains the concepts and operations of Islamic banking from practitioners‟ point of view. The last part gives advice on setting up and operating an Islamic bank. The annexes give model agreements on Islamic finance such as mudaraba, musharaka, ijara, etc (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KHAYAT, Habeeb Albert, Waqf in Palestine and Israel from the Ottoman Reforms to the Present, Ph D Dissertation, American University, Washington, DC, USA, 1962. 230 Leaves.

KHAYYAT, ABDULAZIZ, al-,"The  Role  of Believers  in Ensuring an Equitable Distribution of the Earth's Resources: A Muslim Point of View," in Religion and the Use of Earth's Resources, Rome: Pontifical Council on Interreligious Dialogue, Vatican, 1996, pp. 125-144. Summary: Highlights the values and norms of Islam for ordinary Muslims with respect to protection and use of earth's resources. Also points out policy implications for the state (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Khir, K., L. Gupta, et al. (2008). Longman Islamic Banking: A Practical Perspective. Petaling Jaya: Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.

Khorshid, A. (2004). Islamic Insurance: A Modern Approach to Islamic Banking. Routledge.

Khosa, Iqbal Ahmed, (1989), “The Institution of Zakat”, Journal of Rural Development and Administration, Peshawar, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 95-8.

Khurram Khan and Muhammad Abbas,Impact of Islamic Work Ethics and Job Satisfaction on Job Involvement and Turnover Intentions - [Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM)],,

Khurram Khan, Asma Gul, Zarina Abdul Salam,University Students Islamic Work Ethics and their Attitude towards Business Ethics: Evidence from Asia [Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM)],,

Khurram Khan,Challenges of Affordable Housing Finance in IDB Member Countries Using Islamic Modes - Book Review - [Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM)],,

Khurram Khan,Muhammad Ayub: Understanding Islamic Finance - Book Review  - [Journal of Islamic Business and Management (JIBM)],,

Kidwell, David S., Peterson, Richard L. & Blackwell, David W. (2000). Financial Institutions Markets and Money, 7th edition. John Wiley and Sons.

KIFAYATULLAH,  “Economic  Thought  in  the  8th  Century-The  Muslim Contribution”, Voice of Islam, Karachi, March 1976, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 301-304.

Kin Fai, W. (1999). Introduction to monetary economics and the Malaysian financial system. Banking and Financial Services Certificate Study Manual CF01, pp. 15- 8. Malaysia: Institute Bank-Bank Malaysia.

King, David N. (1999). Financial Claims and Derivatives. London: International Thomson Business Press.

King, M. (2004). What Fates Impose - Facing Up to Uncertainty, Speech delivered at the Eighth British Academy Annual Lecture, London, 1 December 2003. Available at: http://www.bis.org/review/r041206a.pdf. Access date: 13.11.2012.

Kinloch, D. (n.d). Labuan: A Welcome Mat for a New Era. Labuan International Business & Financial Centre Home Page. Available at http://www.labuanibfc. my/site/index.php/news-room/articles/192-labuan-a-welcome-mat-for-a- new-era. Accessed on April 25, 2012.

Kirman, Alan. (2009). Economic Theory and the Crisis. Real-World Economics Review, 51, pp. 80-83.

KISTER, M.J., “The Social and Political Implications of Three Traditions in The Kitab al Kharaj of Yahya bin Adam al Qarashi”, Journal of Economic and  Social  History of  the  Orient,  (Leiden),  Vol.  3, Part 3, Oct. 1960, pp. 326-334.

KL Sentral. (2007, June 4th). RM720million KLSSB Sukūk Mushārakah PTC. Retrieved January 15th, 2009, from SC Bond Issuance Information: www.sc.com.my

KLAT, P.J., “Waqf, or Mortmain, Property in Lebanon”, Middle East Economic Papers, 1961, pp. 34-44.

KLSSB. (2007, June 4th). RM720 million KLSSB Sukūk Mushārakah PTC. Retrieved August 5th, 2009, from Securities Commission Issuance Information Website: http:// www.sc.com.my

KNIGHT, W. DONALD, "Islamic Investment in the US", in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance , 2000, pp. 536-543. Summary: Discusses the tax law of the US with reference of investment and highlights its implications for Islamic investment. Suggests how non-resident US investors can structure their financial instruments to minimize the tax bite (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KNOST, Stefan, “The Waqf in Court: Lawsuits on the Property of Religious Endowments in Ottoman Aleppo”, Paper Presented to “The Application of Islamic Law in Muslim Courts, ISIM, Leiden 26-28 Oct. 2001, Typescript 15 p.

KOCAK, B., “Turkish Islamic Wakfs Yesterday and Today”, Economic Dialogue, Istanbul, Dialog 1986, pp. 186-195.

Kodithodika, K. (2011). Offshore Centres for Islamic Finance. Islamic Finance News. Vol. 8. Issue 28.

Kolb, Robert W. (2000). Futures, Options, & Swaps. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Koski, J. L., and Pontiff, J. (1996). How are derivatives used? Evidence from mutual fund industry. The Wharton Financial Institutions Center. Retrieved from http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/96/9627.pdf [accessed October 14, 2006].

Kotby, Hussein E. (1990). Financial Engineering for Islamic Banks The Option Approach. Niigata- ken: Institute of Middle Eastern Studies.

Kothari, V. (2008, Sept 5th). The Name is Bond. Covered Bond. Retrieved Jan 25th, 2010, from Vinod Kothari Website: www.vinodkothari.com/covered%20bonds%20article%20by%20vinod%20koth ari.pdf

KOZLOWSKI, Gregory C. "The Changing Political and Social Contexts of Muslim Endowments: The Case of Contemporary India." In Le Waqf dans l'espace islamique. Outil de pouvoir socie-economique. R. Dequilhem and A. Raymond Eds.. Paris and Damascus: Institute Francais d'Etudes Arabes de Damas, 1994. Also included in Asfahani, Mustafa M., (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf in al-Alam al-Islami, Qum (Iran), 2002, Vol. 55, pp. 277-291.

KOZLOWSKI, Gregory C., “Imperial Authority, Benefactions and Endowments (Awqaf) in Mughal India”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1995, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 355-70.

KOZLOWSKI, Gregory C., Muslim Endowments and Society in British India, Cambridge University Press, 1985, 221 p.

KPMG (2010). Luxembourg for Finance: Prospects and Challenges.

KPMG International. (March 2007). Growth and Diversification in Islamic Finance. Retrieved 05 April, 2010, from http://us.kpmg.com/microsite/ FSLibraryDotCom/docs/Growth%20and%20Diversification%20in%20 Islamic%20Finance.pdf.

Krishna, A., Uphoff, N. and Esman, M.J. (1997), Reasons for Hope: Instructive Experiences in Rural Development, Kumanrian Press, West Hartford, CT.

Krishnan, A. (2008). Words, Phrases and Maxims Legally and Judicially Defined Volume 12 P and Q. Lexis Nexis.

Krugman, Paul. (September 2, 2009). How Did Economists Get It So Wrong? New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2011.

Kunhibava, S. (2006). The possible use of the ja‟alah contract as a derivative, and standardization of English spelling for product development in Islamic banking and finance. 4th International Islamic Banking and Finance Conference. JW Marriot, Kuala Lumpur: Monash University Malaysia.

Kunhibava, S. (2009). Overcoming Shariah Objections to Derivatives in Islamic Finance through Comparative Analysis. PhD., Monash University.

Kunhibava, Sherin and Shanmugam, Bala,Shariah and Conventional Law Objections to Derivatives: A Comparison,,

Kunhibava, Sherin,Reasons on the Similarity of Objections with Regards to Gambling and Speculation in Islamic Finance and Conventional Finance,,

KUNT, Metin, “The Vakif as Instrument of Public Policy: Notes on the Koprulu Family Vakifs”, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Waqf, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, June 1979.

Kuran, T. (2004). Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism. Princeton University Press.

KURAN, TIMUR, "Economic Theory", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Modern Islamic World, New York: ,1995, pp. 397-400. Summary: Explains the evolution of Islamic economics in the recent times. Criticizes the, approach, and framework of Islamic economics. Argues that it is inconsistent, incoherent, narrow-based and unproven. It does not make its case, though it is successful in condemning the economic doctrines (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Fundamentalisms and the Economy," in Martin Marty and R.S. Appleby (ed.), Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies and Militancy", Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, pp. 289-301. Summary: Compares the fundamentalist thought of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism. Thinks these fundamentalisms have several similarities. But they do not interact with one another. All of them consider their breed as superior to others. None of them is coherent and comprehensive nor are they able to meet the challenge of present day complex societies. They have internal inconsistencies as well. As a result, they are capable of justifying almost any economic agenda. They have tried to invent a whole host of ruses and semantic twists to survive (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Further Reflections on the Behavioral Norms of Islamic Economics", Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, (27), 1995, pp. 159-163. Islamic economics has made no progress in developing a set of behavioral norms suited to modern economic conditions. Muslim economists are effectively transforming economics into an application of general equilibrium theory. The interpretations of Islamic economists reflect the biases of their cultures, backgrounds and circumstances. Much of what passes as Islamic economics is principally motivated by a desire to cultivate a distinctly Islamic economic outlook - a desire that has a tendency to hinder intellectual openness, creativity and realism. The Islamic banks, though a success, has nothing inherently Islamic. They deal in interest, though in a hidden manner (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Interest," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 205-207. Summary: Surveys the arguments in favor and against interest. Argues that the orthodox Muslim opinion, which equates interest and riba, has not been practiced by the Muslims throughout history. Nor are they practicing it these days. They are relying on a number of ruses in the garb of Islamic banking (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Islam and Under-development: An Old Puzzle Revisited", Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, Tubingen, (153:1), March 1997, pp.41-71. Summary: Poses the question why the Muslim countries have been underdeveloped for centuries now? Examines and criticizes various explanations. Argues the real cause is inhospitable environment to innovative thinking and ideas. People with innovative ideas, for fear of reprisals, do not make their ideas public. The public discourse, therefore keeps on revolving around false or static ideas. The new generations also accept the situation as given. As a result, the society loses its vitality to interact with changing situations and in building an appropriate response. Closing doors of ijtehad was also not challenged by the then intelligent Muslims. Even now, innovative Muslim minds, for fear of punishment , do not make their ideas public. It leads to a static society which remains backward (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Islamic Econo mics and the Islamic Subeconomy", Journal of Economic Perspectives (4), 1995, pp. 155-173. Summary: Islamic economics has emerged as a practical demonstration of the desire of the Muslims to keep their identity distinct. There is a little economic content in it. The prohibition of interest does not exist anywhere nor has it existed anywhere throughout history. The system of zakah is full of leakages, corruption, and inefficiencies and also irrelevant to the times. The so-called Islamic banks are resorting to mere ruses in so far elimination of interest is concerned. There is no agreement among the Muslim economists themselves about the basic framework of the discipline. However, since most of the Muslims do not lead a strictly Islamic life, they like to reduce their guilt. For this purpose they operate in an environment of mutual trust. As a result a sort of Islamic subeconomy emerges among the Muslim businessmen (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Islamic Economics and the 'Clash of Civilizations'", Middle Eastern Lectures, (2), 1997, pp. 25-38. Summary: Islamic economics emerged not because of its economic content but because of the urge of the Indian Muslims to have a separate identity. Most of what is being touted in the name of Islamic economics is not relevant to the problems of the contemporary life. The origin of Islamic economics lies close to the Huntington's thesis of clash of civilizations. The Muslims cherish this thesis. The other objective of Islamic economics is to integrate the Muslim states politically. The appeal for Islamic economics among the Muslims lies in the fact that it provides a framework for reducing their guilt as sinful Muslims. To the extent that Islamic economics is an instrument to preserve the Muslim cultural identity, Mawdudi has succeeded (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Islamism and Economics," International Review of Comparative Public Policy, (9), 1997, pp. 71-102. Summary: Criticizes Islamic economic theory and practice. Argues that the Islamic banks have brought in only cosmetic changes. They deal in interest but in a disguised form. The existing Islamic economics does not differ materially from the conventional economics. It is a vague discipline and its vagueness allows the Islamists to place any interpretation that suits the occasion. Islamic economics has not solved any problem. Islamic economics is only an inferior option for economic management. It is a real threat to the global economy, since it will lead to sustained backwardness of a set of countries who will then pose danger to the world economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "Religious Economics and the Economics of Religion," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, Germany, (150:4), 1994, pp. 769-775. Summary: Recently, economics and religion, which had evolved in separate straitjackets, have started crossing borders. The proponents of religious economics are trying to take over the secular economics and imbue it with religion. The secular economists, on the other hand are trying to explain the religious behavior in terms of economic analysis. But the religious economics, like Islamic economics, has not produced any ideas that economists will take seriously (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "The Economic Impact of Islamic Fundamentalism”, in Martin Marty & R.S. Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalism and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies and Militancy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, pp. 302-340. Summary: Reviews Islam's position on interest, zakah and economic development. Argues that the position taken by the majority of Islamic economists is untenable theoretically. It is also not practicable. As a result, the Muslims have invented a series of ruses to conceal dealings in interest. Criticizes Islamic banking. The system of zakah in selected Muslim countries is inefficient, corrupt and ineffective. It has neither redistributed wealth nor alleviated poverty. The Islamic economic ideas regarding development and poverty are not practicable in a large complex society o f the present day (Muhammad Akram Khan).

KURAN, TIMUR, "The Genesis of Islamic Economics: A Chapter in the Politics of Muslim Identity", Social Research, (64:2), Summer 97, pp. 301-338. Summary:Islamic economics emerged from the writings of Mawdudi who fought for a separate identity of Muslims. Although he justified Islamic economics as a sin qua non for a separate ummah, yet the very concept of Islamic economics as a separate discipline was Western. It was renewal of the earlier campaigns run by thinkers like Iqbal. The concept of separate ummah was more imagined than real. The idea of the golden age of Islam was a myth and not supported by any historical evidence. The idea of Islamic economics was embedded in the historical concept of a clash between the West and Islam. The genesis of Islamic economics lay not in any economic imperative but in an effort to define a distinct Muslim identity (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Kuwait Finance House Research (KFH). (2011). Financial Reporting Standards for IFIs: Towards Convergence and Harmonisation.

Kuwait Finance House. (2011). Al-Fatāwā al-Shar‘iyyah fi al-Masāil al-Iqtiṣadiyyah. Available at http:// www.kfh.com/KFH_Fatawa/Fatawa_Index.aspx, Resolution No. 3.

Kuwait Finance House. (n.d.). Calyon London and Kuwait Finance House (Malaysia) Berhad conclude Ijarah Rental Swap Agreement- a first between two international financial institutions. Kuwait Finance House. Retrieved from http://www.kfh.com.my/about_us/media_centre/news_events/articles/article.p hp?intPrefLangID=1&&intArticleID=86 (accessed August 26, 2008).

Kuwait Zakat House, Local and International Charitable Activities (1992), Kuwait: Kuwait Zakat House, 103 p.

 

 

 

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Lajpuri, Abdur Rahim (1992)”The Book of Zakat” in: Fatawa Rahimiyah, translated by M. F. Quraishi, Karachi: Darul Ishaat, vol. 2, pp. 1-12.

LAKHANI, M. YASIN, Development of Secondary Market for Islamic Instruments, 1998, 8 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the Conference on Islamic Corporate Finance organized by Centre for Islamic Economics, Karachi during 21-22 November 1998. Summary: Describes functioning of the Karachi Stock Exchange. Refers to the Term Finance Certificates and leasing instruments on the Karachi Stock Exchange (Muhammad Akram Khan).

LATHAM, J.D., “Observations on the text and translation of al Jarsifi’s Treatise on Hisba”, Journal of Semetic Studies, Vol. 5, 1960, pp. 124-143.

LATIF, HAFIZ M., "Beema aur Islam," (Urdu) (Insurance and Islam) al-Balagh, Karachi, 11-12/1400, pp. 29-38, 37-47,21-39. [PUBLICATION DATES: Dhi qa'adah 1400, Dhil Hajj 1400, Muharram 1401 AH]. Summary: Gives a brief description of the business of insurance as developed in the West. Argues that the present system of insurance suffers from two defects: it has an element of riba. It involves gambling. If the present day business is modified to remove these two elements, the insurance can become Islamic. Suggests some sort of mutual insurance (Muhammad Akram Khan).

LATIFI, Danial, “Law of Family Waqfs: Need for a Reconsideration”, in Mahmood, Tahir (ed), Islamic Law in Modern India, Bombay, N. M. Tirpathi, 1972, pp. 228-230.

LAWAI, HUSAIN, Packaging, Pricing and Distribution of Islamic Financing Products in the Conventional Banking Environment and Risk Factor Considerations, 18 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the World Islamic Banking, Finance and Investments Summit organized by IBC Asia Ltd. at Kuala Lumpur during 23-24 September 1996. Summary: Argues for a special need to redesign some Islamic financing products to accommodate securitization. The IFIs should be able to offer total solutions through financial packaging of their products tailored to the needs of customers. The products should not only be meant for Muslims but equally attractive to all business community. The world-wide deregulation and privatization has opened up new opportunities for cross-border financing and IFIs can play an active role. The IFIs should reappraise themselves in light of prevailing market to exploit the available opportunities. Contains five case studies also (Muhammad Akram Khan).

LAYISH, Aharon, "The Family Waqf and the Shar’i Law of Succession in Modern Times”, Islamic Law and Society, 1997, Vol. 4, pp. 352-88.

LAYISH, Aharon, "The Maliki Family Waqf According to Wills and Waqfiyyat" Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1983, Vol. 46, no. 1, pp.1-32.

LAYISH, Aharon, "The Muslim Waqf in Israel, Asian and African Studies, 1966, Vol. 2, pp. 41-76.

LAYISH, Aharon, "The Muslim Waqf in Jerusalem after 1967: Beneficiaries and Management”, Le Waqf dans le monde musulman contemporian (XIXe-Xxe siecles), ed. Faruk Bilici, Varia Turcica, Istanbul, Institute Francais d’etudes Annotoliennes, 26 (1994) pp. 145-68. Also in Asfahani, M. M. (ed), Kunuz al Waqf…., Qum, 2002, Vol. 69, pp. 120-142.

Lebbai, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ahmad (1999), “Zakat (the Poor Rate)”, in: Fat-hud-Dayyan fi Fiqhi Khairil Adyan: A Compendium of Muslim Theology and Jurisprudence, translated by Saifuddin J. Aniff-Doray, Kuala Lumpur: Noordeen, pp.330-41.

LEEUWEN, Richard van, “The Maronite Waqf of Dayr Sayyidat Bkirki” in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf . . ., Qum 2002, Vol. 68, pp. 147- 163.

LEEUWEN, Richard Van, Waqfs and Urban Structures: The Case of Ottoman Damascus, Leiden, Netherlands, E.J. Brill, 1999, 238 pp.

LEISER, G., “The Endowment of al-Zahiriyya’ in Damascus”, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1984, Vol. 27, pp. 33-55.

LEVY, RUEBEN, Notes and Editing of ‘Ibn al Ukhuwwah’s Ma’alim al Qurbah fi Ahkam al Hisbah, London: Luzac & Co., 1938, 256+113 p.

LEWIS, MERVYN K., " The Cross and the Crescent: Comparing Islamic and Christian Attitudes to Usury," Iqtisad: Journal of Islamic Economics, Yogyakarta, (1:1), April 1999, pp. 1-23. Summary: The Christian objection to usury was almost identical to the Islamic viewpoint. Many of the legal devices used to hide interest were borrowed by the Christians from the Muslim merchants. Some were similar to the Muslim musharaka and mudaraba. Differences included: severity of penalties in Christianity. It also lacked an overriding injunction on the topic like that in the Qur'an (Muhammad Akram Khan).

LEWIS, MERVYN K., Islamic Banking, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2001, 274 pp. Summary: Explores the Islamic law and religious and ethical principles relating to prohibition of interest and Islamic banking. Considers analytical basis of Islamic banking and finance in the light of modern theories of financial intermediation and indentifies conceptual issues to be resolved. Cites case studies of Islamic banks in Bahrain, Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, Malaysia, Australia, Iran, Pakistan and Sudan and defends it against unjustified criticism (Muhammad Akram Khan).

LITTLE, Donald P. "The Nature of Khanqahs, Ribats, and Zawiyas under the Mamluks" in Hallaq, Wael B. (ed) Islamic Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1991. 91-106.

LOKKEGAARD,  F.,  Islamic  Taxation  in  the  Classical  Period,  Lahore: Sindh Sagar Academy, 1979, 286 p.

Lokkegaard, Ferede, (1950), “Kharaj and Ushr Land” in: Islamic Taxation in the Classic Period, Copenhagen, Branner and Korch, pp. 38-72.

LOPEZ, S. ROBERT and IRVING W. RAYMOND, “Muslim Trade in The Mediterranean and The West” in Lewis A.R. (ed.) The Muslim World and The West, London, John Wiley. 1970, pp. 30-8.

LOQMAN, MUHAMMAD, "Islamic Ethics in Management" in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp. 265-281. Summary: Discusses the Islamic ethics and values in management. Deals with Islamic ethical issues like  usurious  management  and  administration, corruption in  management,  balance between material and spiritual well-being, the divine origin of ethics, justice, shura, and cooperation (Muhammad Akram Khan).

LOWACK, NICHOLAS, Islamic Coins and Trade in the Medieval World, Aldershot, UK: Varium, 1990.

 

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Maghniyyah, M. J., (2003), “Zakat”, in: The Five Schools of Islamic Law (al-Fiqh `ala’l Madhahib al-Khamsah), Qum (Islamic Republic of Iran), Ansariyah Publications, Part I, pp. 148-164.

Maghniyyah, Muhammad Jawad (1992), “Zakah and Khums According to Fifth School of Islamic Law”, al-Tawhid (Tehran), Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 123-38.

MAHDI, Mahmoud A., “Enhancing the Growth and Performance of Awqaf: The IDB Experience”, in Rashid, S. Khalid(ed), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit . pp. 231-247.

MAHDI, MAHMOUD AHMAD, Islamic Banking Modes for Building Financing , Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, 283 pp. Summary: Proceedings of a workshop organized in Khartoum (Sudan) during 27 -29 October 1991 by the Islamic Research and training Institute of the Islamic Development Bank Jeddah and the Sudanese Estate Bank Sudan. Contains three theoretical papers and eight case studies. The theoretical papers discuss the economic and fiqhi aspects of various modes of house building finance. The case studies explain how various financial institutions practice house building financing (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MAHDI, SYED IQBAL, "The Role of Public and Private Sectors in Islamization of the Economy of Iran", in Ehsan Ahmed (ed.), Role of Private and Public Sectors in Economic Development in an Islamic Perspective, Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1996, pp.135-146. Summary: Finds that Iran's strategy of heavy reliance on central planning and the public sector failed to achieve the goal of Islamization of its economy. There was need for a balance between growth of private sector and the public sector. Also emphasizes the need for imposing zakah and abolishing interest from the economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MAHMOOD, Tahir, “Contemporary Awqaf Legistation in Muslim Countries and Communities”, International Seminar on Awqaf and Economic Development, Kuala Lumpur, 1998, (Unpublished paper).

MAHMOOD, Tahir, “Islamic Family Waqf in Twentieth Century Legislation: A Comparative Perspective”, Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly, March 1988, Vol. 8, pp. 1-20.

MAHMOOD, Tahir, “The Wakf Act 1954 As Amended by the Wakf (Amendment) Act of 1984”, Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly, March 1985, Vol. 5, pp. 85-90.

MAHMOOD, Tahir, “Waqf Management Experiences in South Asia, Glimpses into National Legislations” Religion and Law Review, Summer & Winter, 1999, Vol. 8, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 68-78.

Mahmoud A. and Abdullah Mohamed Aden (eds.), Readings in Public Finance, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 371-385.

Mahmoud, Mabid, (1974), “Frictions, Power Rationing and al-Zakat”, in: Association of Muslim Social Scientists Proceedings of the Third National Seminar, Gary, Indiana, USA, Association of Muslim Social Scientists, pp. 29-43.

MAHROOF, Meor Mohideen Mohamed, “The Enactment of Waqf Legislation in Sri Lanka: The Law in Centent” Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, (London, UK), 1985, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 283- 294.

Majeed, F. S. A. (1995), Zakat: Islamic Law, Singapore: Ze Majeed Publishing, Vol. 2.

MAJID, Syed A., “Waqf as a Family Settlement Among the Muhammadens”, Journal of the Society and Comparative Legislation, Vol. 60, pp. 122-141.

Malik  Ibn-e-Anas,   Imam;   Mu’watta,  English  Translation  by  M.Rahimuddin;   Sh.   Muhammad   Ashraf   Publishers,   Lahore,   1985 (reprinted in 1991).

MALIK, Jamal, "Change in Traditional Institutions: Waqf in Pakistan", in André Wink (ed.): Islam, Politics and Society in South Asia, Delhi: Manohar, (1991), 81-116.

MALIK, Jamal, "Waqf in Pakistan; Change in traditional institutions", Die Welt des Islams (Leiden), 1990, 30, 63-97.

Malik, M. Farooq-i-Azam (1993), al-Zakah: the Islamic financial Responsibility, Houston Mannan, M. A., (1989), “Suggested Issues for Further Research” on Zakah, in: I. A. Imtiazi et al. (eds.), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB, pp. 212-226.

MALIK, M. HAFEEZ, Financing in Islam, Islamabad: Author: 670,St. 92, G/9/4, Islamabad,  1999,  293 pp. Summary: A gives a general description of various Islamic financing techniques adopted by the financial institutions. Summarizes their practical application and procedures (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Malik, Shahnawaz, (1992), “Lump-sum Income Transfer as a Measure for Poverty Alleviation: Zakat of Ushr in Pakistan”, Journal of Rural Development and Administration, (Peshawar), Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 98-101.

MANDAVILLE, Jon E., “Usurious Piety: The Cash Waqf Controversy in the Ottoman Empire”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, August 1979, No. 10, pp. 289-308.

MANNAN, Abdul, M., Structural Adjustments And Islamic Voluntary Sector With Special Reference to Awqaf in Bangladesh (Discussion Paper No. 12), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1995, 144 p.

Mannan, M. A., (1970), “Zakat” in: Islamic Economics Theory and Practice, Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, pp. 283-302.

Mannan, M. A., (1983), “Zakah, Its Distribution and Inter-poor Distributional Equity”, Thoughts on Economics, Dacca, Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 2-14, also (1984) in: The Making of Islamic Economics Society, Cairo: International Association of Islamic Banks, pp. 332-46.

Mannan, M. A., (1989), “Effects of Zakah Assessment and Collection on the Redistribution on Income in Contemporary Muslim Countries”, in: I.A. Imtiazi et al. (eds.), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB, pp. 29-50.

MANNAN, M. A., Hajj Management of Malaysia, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1996, 103 pp. Summary: Introduces the Malaysian institution of Tabung Haji, its evolution, history and progress. Highlights its role in mobilizing resources and making them available for hajj. Suggests the Muslim ummah should try to develop the institution of Hajj. It should make this occasion a place for exchanging information on prospective projects. Ultimately, the Muslim ummah should develop a central village for exhibiting the products of the whole ummah at the time of Hajj (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MANNAN, M. A., Understanding Islamic Finance: A Study of the Securities Market in an Islamic Framework, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute , 1993, 115 pp. Summary: Studies the nature and characteristics of various securities in light of the Shari’ah. Argues that the framework of Islamic securities market can be developed on basis of mudaraba, musharaka, and murabaha concepts. Proposes a set of financial instruments in the Shari’ah framework. Highlights some of the nagging and unsolved issues in the area. Closes with a set of suggestions for policy makers (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MANNAN, M.A., “The Institution of Waqf: Its Religious and Socio Economic Roles and Implication” in BASAR, Hasmat (ed.), Management and Development of Awqaf Properties, , Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, 1987, pp. 27-37.

MANNAN, M.A., 'Cash-Waqf Certificate - Global Opportunities for Developing the Social Capital Market in 21st Century Voluntary- Sector Banking', in Proceedings of the Third Harvard University Forum on Islamic Finance, Cambridge, M.A., USA: Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, 2000, pp. 243-256.

MANSURI, TAHIR, "Riba per Ba'd Ma'asar Nuqta Hai Nazar ka Ilmi Jaiza," (Urdu) (Review of Some Contemporary Theories of Riba) Fikro Nazar, Islamabad, (35:1), July 1997, pp. 13-38. Summary: Critically examines the concepts and definition of riba presented by Ziaul Haq, Imran Niyazee and Sayyed Tahir. Disagrees with all of them since their concepts are at variance with the majority of the Shari’ah scholars (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MARCUS, A., “Piety and Profit: The Waqf in the Society and Economy of Eighteenth Century Aleppo, Paper Presented at the International Seminar on Social and Economic Aspects of the Muslim Waqf, Jerusalem, June 24-28, 1979.

MARMON, S.E., “Mamluk Waqf Documents and the Study of Slavery: An Interim Report”, American Research Center in Egypt, Newsletter No. 127, 1984, pp. 15-17.

MARSOOF, Saleem, “Muslim Charitale Trusts and Religious Institutions in Sri Lanka”, Law and Society Trust’s Fortnightly Review, (Colombo, Srilanka), 1993, Vol. 4.

MARSOOF, Saleem, “Socio-Economic Potential and Administrative of Awqaf in Sri Lanka”, in Rashid S. Khalid (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit., pp. 173-217.

MARTIN, JEREMY, "Enhancing the Competitiveness of Islamic Banks," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 111-113. Summary: Islamic banks need to enhance their competitiveness as compared to conventional banks. It would require political stability, investment in human resource development, innovation in product development, and creation of a central registry of Islamic legal opinions on banking transactions; create systems to compensate banks for delays caused by the customers in paying back the funds. Countries can change laws to enable the banks buy properties (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MATTHEWS, C.D. Maqrizi’s Treatise, “Dau as Sari” on the Tamimi Waqf in Hebron, Journal of Palestinian Oriental Studies, 1939, No. 19, pp. 147-179.

Maudoodi, Abul A´la; ‘Sood’ Islamic Publications, Lahore

Maududi, S. A. A., (1976), “Zakat” in: Fundamentals of Islam, Lahore, Islamic Publications Ltd., pp. 153-96.

MAYER, L.A., (editor). The Buildings of Qaytbay as Described in his Endowment Deed, I: Text and Index. London: Arthur Probsthain, 1938.

McCHESNEY, R.D., “Waqf and Public Policy: The Waqfs of Shah Abbas: 1011-1023/1602-1614”, Asian and African Studies, 1981, Haifa, 15:165-90.

McCHESNEY, R.D., “Waqf in Balkh and Bukhara in the Second Half of the 11th/17th Century: Political, Social, and Economic Aspects, Hamdard Islamicus, Summer 1989, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 39-56.

McCHESNEY, R.D., Waqf in Central Asia, Princeton (New Jersey), Princeton University Press, 1991, 356 p.

McCHESNEY, Robert, Waqf at Balkh: A Study of the Endowments at the Shrine of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Princenton University, 1973, Ph.D. Thesis.

MEENAI, ANWAR A., "Developing New Modes of Investment", New Horizon, London, (67), Sept. 1997, pp. 10-12. Summary: Discounting is acceptable if the rate of discount is not rate of interest but expected rate of return of the project (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MEENAI, ANWAR AHMED, "A Critical Evaluation of Murabaha Moajjala," New Horizon, London, (112), Sept 2001, pp.10-12. Summary: Re-examines the objections raised against murabaha in light of actual practice of Islamic banking in Pakistan. Thinks these objections are valid. However, the banks can overcome these objections by adopting a more careful approach, which is strictly in conformity with the Shari’ah as well as profitable for the banks (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MEENAI, ANWAR AHMED, "Islamic Banking - Where are we Going Wrong?”New Horizon, London, (72), Feb 1998, pp. 3-5. Summary: Gives a critical account of the effort made in Pakistan to transform the financial system into the Islamic mould. Analyses the factors leading to failure and makes suggestions to redeem the situation (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MEENAI, ANWAR, "Islamic Banks and Deposit Mobilization, "in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 259-266. Summary: The Islamic banks cannot mobilize deposits like conventional banks since they cannot ensure return of the principal nor can they guarantee a predetermined return on the principal. For financing trade and industry the Islamic banks should adopt any of the following methods: equity, murabaha, salam, istisna and ijara. They will also need changes in the macroeconomic and fiscal management of the economy by government. For financing in terms of loan, the banks will not be able to charge any interest. However, the loan should be denominated in terms of a basket of currencies (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Meera, A. Kameel M., (1992), “Assessing Zakat from General Accepted Financial Statements”, Lights in Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Malaysia, Vol. 2, No. 2, March.

MEERA, AHMEDI KAMEEL MYDIN and AHSAN, SYED NAZMUL, “Al Kharaj and Related Issues: A Comparative Study of Early Islamic Scholarly Thoughts  and  Their  Reception  by  Western  Economists.  in  Sadeq  and Ghazali (eds.), Readings in Islamic Economic Thought, Kuala Lumpur: Longman, Malaysia, 1992, pp. 203-21.

Metawally, M. M., and A. Chowdhury, (1983), “Enforcement of Zakat in Contemporary Muslim Countries: A Practical Model”, Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, Vol. 19, No. 3, July, pp. 28-41.

Metwally, M. M., (1986), “The Effect of the Religious Tax of Zakah on Investment in an Islamic Economy”, Humanomics, (Nava Scotia, Canada), No. 2, Vol. 2, pp. 43-55.

MIKAILU, AMINU S., "Islamic Political Economy and Military Governance: The Nigerian Experience", Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XX:4), Oct-Dec 1997, pp.25-36. Summary: Nigeria inherited political economy based upon secular perspectives of capitalism. The military's performance in Nigeria in the secular framework was not enviable. Recommends that the Government should facilitate emergence of Islamic political economy in Muslim majority countries. The individuals and leaders should comply with the ethical values of Islam. The leaders should encourage the good and prohibit the evil. They should not rule by coercion. Instead they should adopt consultation (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MILLS, PAUL S., Islamic Finance: Theory and Practice, London: Macmillan Press, 1999, 166 pp. Summary: Develops a critique of interest-based debt finance. Argues that the Islamic analysis of banking and finance is a viable option as compared to interest-based finance. Seen in light of actual experience of Islamic banking and finance, it shows a way for considering the possibility of introducing non-interest bearing finance in the Western economies. Develops a model of profit-loss sharing. Argues that the non-interest bearing finance brings in greater stability as compared to interest-bearing finance. Identifies key issues in Islamic finance that need to be resolved. Outlines a survey of interest-related ideas in the Western tradition, religions and literature (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MINISTRY OF AWQAF (Cairo), Translation of the (Waqf) Document of Uthman al Matrabaz in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf .. , Qum, 2002, Vol. 82, pp. 93-97.

Ministry of Finance, government of Pakistan, 212 + p.

MINORSKY,  V.,  “Nasir  al  Din  Tusi  on  Finance”,  Iranica,  (Tehran University), 1964, pp. 64-85. 

MIRAKHOR, ABBAS, "Cost of Capital and Investment in an Non-Interest Economy", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (4:1), Dec. 1996, pp.35-46. Summary: In absence of an interest rate mechanism there is no benchmark against which the cost of capital can be measured and the efficiency of investme nt projects evaluated. Proposes a method by which the cost of capital can be measured without resorting to a fixed and predetermined interest rate. The suggested procedure is simple and is based on the well-known Tobin's 'q' and can be used in the private as well as public sectors to obtain a benchmark with reference to which investment decisions can be made (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MIRAKHOR, ABBAS, "General Characteristics of an Islamic Economic System," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 11-31. Summary: A comprehensive and concise statement on the basic principles of . Explains the philosophy and operations of the Islamic economic system (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MIRAKHOR, ABBAS, "Hopes for the Future of Islamic Finance , New Horizon, London, (121), July 2002, pp. 5-8. Summary: Reviews the evolution and present status of Islamic banking and finance. Argues that in this age of global instability, Islamic finance gives a hope. However, the Islamic finance should develop its own products. For this purpose, the Muslims should set up research and development institutions to be financed by endowment funds (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MIRAKHOR, ABBAS, "Progress and Challenges of Islamic Banking," Review of Islamic Economics, Leicester, (4:2), 1997, pp. 1-12. Summary: Reviews briefly the progress in developing Islamic banking and discusses the prospects and challenges. To this end, the paper provides a historical overview of developments in the theory and practice of Islamic banking. This is followed by a discussion of analytical developments and financial theory. These sections provide basis for assessment of the remaining operational challenges and prospects for Islamic banking (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MIRAKHOR, ABBAS, “Muslim Scholars and The History of Economics: A Need for Reconsideration”, American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Dec. 1987, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 245-276.

Mirpuri, M. Ahmed (1998), “Zakat – Islamic obligatory charity”, in: Fatawa Sirat-e- Mustaqeem, translated by Mohammed Abdul Hadi, Riyadh: Darussalam, pp. 205-10.

Modern Times” in: Raquibuzzaman (ed.), Some Aspects of The

MODERRESSI, H., Kharaj in Shia Law from the Beginning to the   10th/16th Century, Ph.D. Thesis, University of  Oxford, 1982, 493 p.

Mohammad, Akbar, (1980), “ A Note on the Concept of Zakah and Taxation”, in: Raquibuzzaman (ed.), Some Aspects of the Economics of Zakah, Plainfield, Indiana, North American Trust Publications, pp. 70-76.

Mohammad, Faiz (1991), “Prospects of Poverty Eradication through the Existing Zakat System in Pakistan”, The Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, Part II, winter, pp. 1119-29.

Mohammad, Faiz (1992), Evolution of Zakah and Ushr in Pakistan, A Study Sponsored by the Central Zakah Administration of Pakistan, 210 p. (mimeo)

Mohammad, Faiz (1995), “Relationship between Obligatory Official Zakah Collection and Voluntary Zakah Collection by Charitable Organizations”, in: el-Ashker and Sirajul Haq (eds.), Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, Jeddah, IRTI, IDB, pp. 163-195.

Mohammad, Mohammad Ibrahim, (1995), “Sudan” (A Case Study of Zakah Management), in: el-Ashker and Sirajul Haq (eds.), Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, Jeddah, IRTI, IDB, pp. 417-37.

MOHSIN, MOHAMMAD, Economics of Small Business in Islam, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1995, 65 pp. Summary: Discusses the rationale of small business and constraints to its development. Derives policy implications for small scale business in Islamic perspective. Prescribes a modus operandi to promote small scale business in Islamic countries (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MORTEL, RICHARD T., “Mercantile Community of Makkah During   the Late Mamluk Period”, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, London, March, 1868, Vol. 4,  No. 1, pp. 15-35.

MSWB, Proceedings of the Conference of the Chairmen and Members of the District Wakf Committees of Mysore State, The Mysore State Wakf Board, Bangalore, 1966.

Mubasher, Yusuf (1980), "Zakat – Plenty for the poor", Pakistan Economist, Vol. 20, No. 43, pp.16-17, 29.

MUGHNIYYAH, A.M. Jawad, “Waqf According to Five Schools of Islamic Law”, al Tawhid (Qum, Iran), Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990, pp. 61-68.

Muhammad, Abdul Aziz bin (1993), Zakat and Rural Development in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Berita Publishing, 235 p.

MUHAMMAD, B. A. SABIR, "Inventory Management without Interest: The Islamic Perspective" Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, XXII: 1, Jan.1999, pp. 75-79. Summary: Discusses the technique of working out economic order quantity. Proposes that in an Islamic framework, interest can be replaced by expected rate of profit. Rest of the formula can be retained and used  as it is (Muhammad Akram Khan).

MUHAMMAD, YAR, Cooperation among the Muslim Countries of the World, Peshawar: Institute of Development Studies, 1987, 40 pp. Summary: Gives a brief overview of the economic resources of the OIC countries. Points out areas of cooperation among the Muslim countries (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Mukherji, Badal, (1980), “A Macro Model of the Islamic Tax System”, Indian Economic Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-March, pp. 65-74.

Mushfiqur-Rahman (2003), Zakat Calculation – Primarily based on Fiqhuz-Zakat by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Leicester, U.K., the Islamic foundation, 128pp

MUSLIM, A.G., “The Early Development of The Islamic Concept of Riba” Current British Research in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, University of Durham, Center for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1971.

Mustapha, Nik – b. H. N. Hassan, (1987), “Zakat in Malaysia – Present and Future Status”, Journal of Islamic Economics, Kuala Lumpur, August-September, vo.1, no.1, pp. 47-75. Also in: Sadeq, A. M. et al (1991), Development and Finance in Islam, Selangor, Malaysia, International Islamic University Press, pp. 213-238.

 

 

 

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Nabulsi, Mutaz Hamdallah, (1992), “Zakat” in: Essays on Islamic Economics, Central Missouri State University, M.A. Thesis, pp. 18-21.

Nadeemul Haque and Abbas Mirakhor (March, 1998); “The design of Instruments for Government Finance in an Islamic Economy”,  IMF Working Paper.

Nadvi, Syed Habibul Haq, (1986), “Etymology of Zakah, The Religio-Liguistic Significance in Arabic Studies, (Annual Journal of Department of Arabic, Urdu and Persian), University of Durban, Westville, South Africa, No. 10, pp. 101-8.

Nadvi, Syed Sulaiman, (1994), “Zakat” in: Worship in Islam, (Translation of the Portion of Worship in Siratun Nabi by Rizwanuddin Ahmad and Muhammad Aslam) Karachi, Darul Ishaat, pp. 153-202.

Nadwi, S. Abul Hasan Ali, (1975), “Zakat (Poor Due)” in: the Four Pillars of Islam, (tr. By Kidwai, M. Aziz), Karachi, Majlis Nashriyat-e-Islam, pp. 89-166.

Najmul-Hasan, (1984), Social Security System on Islam with Special Reference to Zakah, Jeddah: International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdulaziz University, 55 p.

Naqvi,  Nawab  Haider  &  Asghar  Qadir  (1981);  “A  Model  of  a Dynamic Islamic Economy and the Institution of Interest”,  Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.

Naqvi,  Nawab  Haider  (1981);  ‘Ethics  and  Economics:  An Islamic Synthesis’ , Islamic Foundation.

NAQVI, S.N.H., "Islamic Banking: An Evaluation", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Kuala Lumpur, (8:1), 2000, pp. 41-70. Summary: The popular view that PLS is ideal or is the only solution for Islamic banking is not tenable. It has many deficiencies besides having a fragile Shari’ah basis. The fixed-income alternatives of PLS have proved to be more practicable. The need is to develop these or other similar options, keeping in view the ultimate objective of the Shari’ah. The objective remains the establishment of a just human society. The Islamic economists better engage themselves in more substantive themes than procedural matters and hair-splitting. PLS, despite being the ideal is not workable. Better settle for less than the ideal but that which is more practicable (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NAQVI, S.N.H., "The Dimensions of an Islamic Economic Model," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (4:2), May 1997, pp. 1-26. Summary: Argues that there is need for an Islamic economic model. Delineates the nature of Islamic economic model in light of four ethical maxims. Constructs a dynamic model based on these maxims. Derives policy considerations for an Islamic states. These policy considerations involve giving preferential treatment to the less privileged, giving greater weight to the wage-goods in the total output, minimizing production and consumption of luxuries and redistributing the wealth from the rich to the poor (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NAQVI, Syed H.M. and Mahmudun-Nasir, Syed, Law of Waqfs, Lahore, All Pakistan Legal Divisions, 1968, pp. 159+33.

NASIM, PERVEZ,"A Case Study of Interes t-free Housing Financing", in Mahdi Mahmoud Ahmad (ed.), Islamic Banking Modes for Building Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995 pp.179-202. Summary: Presented to a workshop on housing finance held in Khartoum during 27-29 October 1991 by Islamic Research and Training Institute, and the Sudanese Estate Bank. Explains the practice of housing finance by the Islamic Cooperative Housing Corporation Canada. The practice is based on rent-sharing. Explains the method with examples (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NAUGHTON, TONY, "Is an Islamic Stock Market Viable?" New Horizon, London, (61), March 1997, pp. 7-11. Summary: Discusses the possibility of establishing an Islamic stock exchange.Reviews various problems and issues relating to it , e.g., short selling, margin trading, options trading, warrants sales, control of speculation through price limits or forfeiture of short-term profits (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NAZ, M. S., Islami Riasat men Muhtasib ka Kirdar (Urdu) (Role of Muhtasib in the Islamic State), Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1999, 500 pp. Summary: A comprehensive treatise on the concept, role and evolution of the institution of hisba during the Islamic history. Discusses the function, obligation, privileges and organization of the office of the muhtasib in different parts of the Muslim world throughout Muslim history. Also, discusses the contemporary scene in some of countries like Sweden, Canada, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Nazir, Khalid, (1996), “Zakat and Ushr System in Pakistan”, Islamic Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Autumn, pp. 333-343.

Nofal, Abd el-Razzaq, (1964), al-Zakat (the poor due), translated from Arabic by Tomader Tawfik, The Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo. 31 pp.

NOIBI, MANSUR A., "Seeking Islamic Banking in Nigeria", New Horizon, London, (73), March 1998, pp. 10-12. Summary: Despite the fact that the Nigerian government issued the Banks and Other Financial Institutions Decree in 1991that gave legal recognition to the profit-loss-sharing system, and provided unprecedented support for the operations of Islamic banks, six and half years later there was no Islamic bank in Nigeria (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NUR, ELMI M., The Principles of an Integrated Concept of Riba: Toward an Islamic Theory of Value, 40 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by International Islamic University Malaysia during 9-12 August, 1999 at Kuala Lumpur. Summary: Examines the concepts of riba al-nasi'a and riba al-fadl. Integrates the two concepts by re-interpreting riba al-fadl. Considers that in exchange of commodities, quality should also be considered for determining the equivalence. The Prophetic injunction regarding simultaneous exchange is only meant to give the two sides an opportunity for inspection (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NUTI, DMENICO MARIO, The Economics of Participation, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, 115pp. Summary: Reviews various concepts and theories of profit-sharing in the context of capitalist economies. Concludes that the ideas of J. Meade are most practical, although they too need further refinement as they also suffer from some shortcomings. The economies of oil-rich Middle East countries are most suitable to try out these ideas (Muhammad Akram Khan).

NYAZEE, I. A. KHAN, Islamic Law of Business Organization: Corporations, Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1998, 205 pp. Summary: The present form of Joint Stock Company is not in conformity with the Shari’ah. It violates the Shari’ah rules relating to limited liability, incorporation and rights and obligations of the shareholders. The Islamic framework does not accept the principle of limited liability. However, the present day corporations can be reformed to bring them within the fold of Islamic law. Proposes a legal model for this purpose (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Nyazee, Imran Ahsan Khan;  ‘Islamic  Law  of  Business organization Corporations’ IIIT & IRI, Islamabad, 1998.

 

 

 

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OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMAD, "Investment Products for Indian Muslims", New Horizon, London, (73), March 1998, pp. 6-9. Summary: Examines some of the mutual funds and securities floated in India which appear to have an Islamic character. Concludes that none of the investment products is fully in line with the Shari’ah. However, some of them have features which are acceptable to Shari’ah and nearer to what Islamic finance will prescribe (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Capital Adequacy Norms for Islamic Financial Institutions", New Horizon, London, (70-71), Dec 1997/Jan 1998, pp. 15-17. Summary: Islamic banks and financial institutions are exposed to various forms of risks. However, unlike conventional banks, they can pass on risk to their depositors, namely, the holders of unrestricted investment accounts . Like capital, unrestricted investment accounts can absorb potential losses on assets of Islamic banks. This is a unique feature of Islamic banks. Hence, there is a strong case for inclusion of unrestricted investment accounts in capital adequacy measures. These measures computed for Islamic financial institutions are, in general, found to be extremely high, much higher than the minimum required as per Basle Committee norms. The robustness of Islamic financial institutions further improves as they do not indulge in speculative transactions, like investment in options and derivatives (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Ethical Options in Islamic Finance," New Horizon, London, (78), Aug.1998, pp. 3-12. Summary: Identifies the norms of Islamic ethics generally applicable to financial contracts and undertakes an assessment of various option-based financial contracts that are created and transacted in the conventional markets in light of these norms. Examines the notion of options (khiyar) forming part of the theory of contracting in Islamic jurisprudence and discusses possibility of designing financial instruments incorporating such options. Discusses some real life examples of options in use by Islamic financial institutions (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Financial Engineering with Islamic Options," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (6:1), Nov.'98, 73-105. Summary: Investigates into the permissibility of conventional options in light of various fiqh issues. Concludes that options as independent contracts may not be suitable forms of hedging risk as they are not compatible with the Shari’ah. The problem of managing risk can be tackled by designing instruments in the Islamic framework of khiyar shart. Shows how a specific instrument can be designed by combining khiyar shart with bai' al-istijrar (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Financial Options in Islamic Contracts: Potential Tools for Risk Management", Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (11), 1999, pp. 3-27. Summary: Attempts to undertake an Islamic assessment of financial contracting in global currency markets. Examines some basic currency-related contracts in the mainstream finance in light of Islamic norms. Highlights views of some Islamic scholars on various conventional as well as Shari’ah-based contractual mechanisms. In cases where there is some degree of divergence of views, the study examines the nature and sources of disagreement as also implications and economic significance of the arguments. In view of the overwhelming importance of currency risk management in volatile markets, the study undertakes an assessment of the various financial contracts as risk management tools (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Islamic Options – Engineering Risk Management Solutions," New Horizon, London, (75) May 1998, pp. 6-9. Summary: Discusses legality of options on the stock exchange. Considers that some forms of options are legal and some others can be made legal with slight modifications. Points out the un-Islamic features of some of the options contracts (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Islamization and Stock Exchange Efficiency", New Horizon, London, (65), July 1997, pp.9-12. Summary: Discusses the factors responsible for efficiency of stock exchange. Also recognizes positive role of speculation but emphasizes need for controlling it. Gives several suggestions to discourage unwholesome speculation in a stock exchange (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, "Istijrar: A Product of Islamic Financial", New Horizon, London, (68), Oct.1997, pp. 3-8. Summary: Discusses main features of a new financial instrument introd uced by the Muslim Commercial Bank of Pakistan. It is a contract which involves financing by the bank over an extended period for procurement of goods and supplies. The re-sale price of the goods is not fixed beforehand. Instead, it is determined in light of market price over the period of contract. The final settlement price is taken as average of market prices during the contract subject to the condition that both the bank and the client will have the option to opt for a pre-determined price if the market price exceeds a lower or an upper limit. In case of a party exercising the option, the opted price will become basis of resale and calculation of profit. Also discusses the factors which will determine the behavior of the two parties (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MOHAMMED, Risk Sharing and Management in Infrastructure Financing: An Islamic Evaluation, 25 pp. Unpublished. Paper presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in the 21st Century organized by the IIUM, Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August, 1999. Summary: Discusses issues relating to risk-sharing and its management in Islamic financing of infrastructure development.  Tests  the popular  conventional  structures  such as Build-Own-Operate (BOO), Build-Own-Transfer (BOT), Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT), etc for compatibility with the Shari’ah. Examines these contractual mechanisms and whether these involve riba and gharar. Also discusses certain risk-mitigating strategies and tools of risk management which are in line with Islamic rationality and which might reduce gharar to permissible level (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OBAIDULLAH, MUHAMMAD, "Islamic Contracts for Currency Exchange," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 165-174. Summary: In exchange of currencies, if one side defers payment, it would involve riba only in the following situations: when gold or silver function as thaman; when exchange involves paper currency belonging to the same country; when the exchange involves currencies of different countries following a fixed exchange rate system. In case the exchange rate is fluctuating, deferring one currency would not involve riba, as the fluctuation in the exchange rate introduces an element of risk that takes the transaction from out of the genus of riba. If both the currencies are deferred to a future date, it could involve gharar. However, Islamic scholars need to devise a system to hedge against the risk due to fluctuation in the exchange rates (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OCHSENWALD, W.L., “A Modern Waqf: The Hijaz Railway 1900- 1948”, Arabian Studies, (Cambridge,UK), 1976, Vol. 3, pp. 1-12.

Omar, Al Fuad & Abdel Haq, Mohammed (1996); ‘Islamic Banking: Theory, Practice And Challenges’ Oxford University Press Karachi.

OMAR, F. ABDULLAH al-, "Some Strategic Suggestions for Islamic Banking in 21st Century", Review of Islamic Economics, Leicester, (9), 2000, pp. 37-56. Summary: Islamic banking has made remarkable progress in the last quarter of a century. However, in recent years the financial services ha ve undergone a massive transformation. As it enters the 21st century, the industry is taking a new shape which poses new challenges. The authors review some of these challenges and advance some strategic suggestions to enable the Islamic banking industry keep pace with recent developments (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OMAR, FUAD, al-, Islamic Banking: Theory, Practice and Challenges, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1996, 137 pp. Summary: Gives an overview of Islamic banking . Discusses case histories of al-Baraka International Bank Ltd, Jordan Islamic Bank for Finance and Investment, Special Finance Houses of Turkey, Bank Islam Malaysia, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah and Islamic banking in Pakistan. Discusses the question of derivatives and options in the framework of Islamic banking and various challenges faced by the Islamic banks (Muhammad Akram Khan).

OMRAN,  ABDEL  RAHIM,  Family Planning  in  the  Legacy of  Islam,  London: Routledge, 1992, 284 pp. Summary: A comprehensive compilation on the question of family life and family planning in Islam. Compiles opinions on the legality or otherwise of family planning, contraceptives, abortion, artificial insemination, test-tube babies and other related issues. The general slant of the book is that  over centuries the  Islamic scholars  have supported family planning in general although there had been differing opinions on other issues. The opinions collected sprawl over the entire Muslim history up to the recent times (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ORAN, AHMAD and RASHID, SALIM, “Fiscal Policy in Early   Islam”, Public Finance, Netherlands 1987. Vol. 44. No. 1, pp. 75-101.

ORMAN,  SABRI,  Economic  Thought  of  Abu  Hamid  al  Ghazali  -  A Methodological Approach, New Jersey, Assembly of the World Religion, 1985, 13 p. (Mimeo).

OTHMAN, M. Zain Ibn Haji, “Institution of Waqf”, Islamic Culture, 1984, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 55-62.

OTHMAN, M. Zain Ibn Haji, “Origin of the Institution of Waqf:, Hamdard Islamicus, Sum. 1983, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 3-23.

OTHMAN, M. Zain Ibn Haji, Islamic Law with Special Reference to the Institution of Wakf, Kuala Lumpur, Religious Affair Div., 1982.

OTHMAN, M. Zain Ibn Haji, The Theory, Practice and Administration of Waqf, with Special Reference to the Malayan State of Kedah, Ph.D. Thesis, St. Andrea, USA, 1970.

OTHMAN, Mohamad Zain Hj. : “Administration of Waqf in the State Of  Kedah”. In: Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, hrsg. v. Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique u. Yasmin Hussain, S. 252-261, - Singapur / Institute of Southeast Asian Studies / 10 S., 1985.

 

 

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Pakistan Council of Islamic Ideology (1981), Introduction of Zakat in Pakistan, Islamabad: the Council, 85 pp.

Pakistan Directorate of Films and Publications (1989), Zakat and Ushr Enforced: Announcement of General Ziaul Haq, Islamabad, 54 pp.

Pakistan Ministry of Law (1980), Zakat and Ushr Ordinance (xvii of 1980), Karachi: Law Publishers, 70 pp.

PAL, IZZUDDIN, Pakistan, Islamic and Economics: Failure of Modernity, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1999, 195 pp. Summary: Argues that the endeavor to develop Islamic economics is only an apology by the Islamists as they were unable to frame proper response to the challenge of modernity. The Islamic theory of riba is defective and forces the Muslims to adopt subterfuges. Similarly, the treatment of zakah and inheritance law requires innovative thinking. The subject of Islamic economics is merely a restatement of neoclassical economics couched in Islamic terminology and jargon. Extremely critical of the subject and its application (Muhammad Akram Khan).

PASHA, Syed Dastagir, “Socio-Economic Potential of Waqfs in Andhra Pradesh and Their Administration”, in RASHID, Syed Khalid, (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op.cit. pp.149-158.

PATHUSHA, K.M., “Problems of Awkaf and Mutawallis in Tamilnadu,” Journal of Objective Studies, July 1992, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 136-41.

PATRIKIS, ERNEST, "Islamic Finance in the United States The Regulatory Framework," in Asma Siddiq (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 532-535. Summary: Enumerates regulatory issues relating to Islamic finance in the legal framework of the United States (Muhammad Akram Khan).

PERI, ODED, “Waqf and Ottoman Welfare Policy: The Poor Kichen   of Hasseki Period”, Journal of Econornic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 35, pp. 167-186.

PERI, Oded, 'The Waqf as an Instrument to Increase and Consolidate Political Power: The Case of the Khasseki Sultan Waqf in late 18th Century Ottoman Jerusalem” Asian and African Studies, Haifa, 1983, 17:47-62.

PERI, Oded. “Waqf and Ottoman Welfare Policy: The Poor Kitchen of Hasseki sultan in Eighteenth Century Jerusalem”, Journal of social and Economic History of the Orient, Vol. 35, no. 2, 1992, pp. 167-186.

PERVAIZ, IMTIAZ AHMAD, Securitization in Islamic Corporate Finance, Karachi, 1998, pp. 23. Unpublished. Presented to the Conference on Islamic Corporate Finance organized by Centre for Islamic Economics, Karachi during 21-22 November 1998. Summary: Discusses technical details of the process of securitization for developing Islamic financial instruments (Muhammad Akram Khan).

PERVEZ, IMTIAZ A., "What is the Islamic View on Time Value of Money and How Does It Differ from That of the Traditional One?", New Horizon, London, (65), July 1997, pp.7-8. Summary: The Western concept of time value of money is the anchor on which the theory of interest is based. In the Islamic framework, the time value of money on purely financial transactions is not recognized. Time value may be applicable only on asset -based transactions such as ijara rentals where the use of asset is relevant to its period (Muhammad Akram Khan).

PERVEZ, IMTIAZ AHMAD, "Liquidity Requirement of Islamic Banks," New Horizon, London, (79), Sept. 1998, pp. 7-10. Summary: Discusses the question of liquidity of banks. Proposes that the Islamic banks should adopt the following formula for working out liquidity requirements : after including the maturity factors of running assets, reserve assets and investment assets but excluding those relevant to restricted mudaraba, minimum one-month liquidity level of an Islamic bank should be fifty percent of which reserve assets must comprise 30 percent. When there is stability in the system and factors that affect a financial i nstitution's credibility, lower levels can also be supported. But in case of volatility even fifty percent may be inadequate. But the formula needs to be debated further (Muhammad Akram Khan).

PETRY, C., “Class Solidarity versus Gender Gain: Women as Custodians of Property in Later Medieval Egypt”, in Keddie, N. and Baron, B. (eds.), Women in Middle Eastern History, New Haven, USA, Yale University Press, 1991, pp. 122-142.

PETRY, C.F., “Research on Medival Waqf Documents: Preliminary Report from the Field”, Newsletter American Research Center Egypt, No. 133, 1986, pp. 11-14.

PETRY, Carl F. "Medieval Waqf Documents in Cairo: Their Role as Historical Sources" Newsletter American Research Center Egypt, No. 118. 1982. 28-33.

PETRY, Carl F., “Fractionalized Estate in a Generalized Regime: The Holdings of al-Ashraf Qatbay and Qansuh al-Ghawri according to their Waqf Deed”. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1998, Vol. 41, no.1, pp. 96-132.

PFEIFER, KAREN, "Is There an Islamic Economics?" in Joel Beinin a nd Joe Stork (eds.), Political Islam, London: I.B. Tauris Publishers, 1997, 154-16. Summary: Summarizes main principles of Islamic economics. Also gives an abstract of the main criticism on Islamic economics. Concludes that if Islamic economics were to resolve its theoretical and practical problems, its economic policies would be functionally equivalent to those in the capitalist West, but tailored to the sensibilities of Islamic culture and ready to replace the now-ineffective central governments held over from the state-capitalist era. Like the Japanese and East Asian forms of capitalism, Islamic economies could function as successfully and competitively as those of Europe and its offshoots, yet claim their own socio-cultural distinctiveness based on the "Islamic ethics” (Muhammad Akram Khan).

POMERANZ, FELIX, "Privatization and the Ethics of Islam", The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Herndon, VA., (14:2), Summer 1997, pp. 264-269. Summary: Explains the process of privatization and various ethics-related issues such as human distress, distribution of income and social needs of the people. Argues that the Islamic economic system  will like to  tackle  the issue of privatization in an entirely different manner (Muhammad Akram Khan).

POWERS, D.S. “Orientalism, Colonialism and Legal History: The Attack on Muslim Family Endowments in Algeria and India”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, July 1989, Vol. 31, pp. 535-571.

POWERS, David S. "Revenues of Public Waqfs in Sixteenth Century Jereusalem”, Archivum Ottomanicum (Wiesbaden, Germany), 1984, Vol. 9, pp. 163-202.

POWERS, David S. "The Maliki Family Endowment: Legal Norms and Social Practices." International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 1993, Vol. 25, pp. 379-406.

POWERS, David S., “Fatwas as a Source of Legal and Social History: A Dispurte over Endowment Revenue from Fourteenth Century Fez, Al Qantara (Madrid, Spain), 1990, Vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 320-40.

PRAERTCHOB, Preeda, 'Mobilization of resources through Waqf in Thailand', in Ariff, M. (ed.), The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia, Pasir Panjang, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991, pp. 233-58.

Presley,   John   R.   (1988);   (Ed.)  ‘Directory  of  Islamic  Financial Institutions’, International Centre for Islamic Studies, Croom Helm, Britain.

Problems of Research in Islamic Economics, Amman: The Royal Academy for Islamic Civilization, 1987, 167 pp. Summary: Proceedings of a symposium held on 24 April 1986 in Amman, Jordan jointly by the Royal Academy of Islamic Civilization and Islamic Research and Training Institute of the Islamic Development Bank Jeddah. Contains four papers, one each by N. Yalcintas, Anas Zarqa, Khurshid Ahmad and Abdel Salam el-Abbadi on different aspects of research in Islamic economics. Highlights problem areas and proposes agenda for further research (Muhammad Akram Khan).

 

 

 

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QARDAWAI, YUSUF AL-, Riba and Bank Ka Sud (Urdu) (Riba and the Interest of Banks) , Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 1993, 117 pp. Urdu translation by Atiq al-Zafar. Summary: A comprehensive statement on the classical concept of riba and its relationship with the prevalent interest in commercial transactions. Argues that riba and interest are identical. Refutes the arguments of Sheikh Tantawi and Sheikh Shaltut of Egypt. Based on primary sources (Muhammad Akram Khan).

QASMI, Qazi Mujahidul Islam, “Waqf in Islamic Fiqh”, ”, in Rashid, S. Khalid (ed), Waqf Experience in South Asia, New Delhi, Institute of Objective Studies, 2002, pp. 3-10.

QAYUM, KHALID, "The Scope and Challenges of Islamic Banking," NewHorizon, London, (78), Aug. 1998, pp. 13-16. Summary: An elementary essay on the basic concept of Islamic banking (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Quraishi, Marghoob A., (1970), Annual Zakat Payment Form, California, al-Manar Press, 19 p.

Quraishi, Marghoob Ahmed (1997), Annual Zakat computation Guide, Palo Alto.

QURESHI, AIJAZ HASAN, “Assessment and Collection of Kharaj (Land Tax) under Umar I, The Second Caliph in Islam”, Journal of Punjab University Historical Society, Lahore: Vol. 13, No. 61, pp. 83-92; Voice of Islam, Karachi, Vol. 10, No. 11, Nov. 62, pp. 531-541.

Qureshi, Anwar Iqbal, (1979), “Zakat” in: The Economic and Social System of Islam, Lahore: Islamic Book Service, pp. 89-132.

Qureshi, D. M., (1978), “Brief Note on Zakat on Stock in Trade”, Mimeo.

Qureshi, D. M., (1980), “The Religious Importance and Rationale of Zakah” Islamic Order, Karachi, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 71-79.

Qureshi, D. M., (1989), “Comments” on Shehata’s “Limitations on the Use of Zakah Funds in Financing Socio-economic Infrastructure of Society”, in: I. A. Imtiazi et al. (eds.), Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah: IRTI/IDB., pp. 74-75.

Qureshi, D.M., (1979), “Some Aspects of the Introduction of Zakah”, Industrial Accountant, Karachi, (19:3), July-September, pp. 11-15.

QURESHI, IJAZ HASAN, “Assessment and Collection of Kharaj (Land Tax) under Umar the Second Caliph”, Journal of the Punjab University Historical Society, 1961, Vol. 13.

QURESHI, M.A., Waqfs in India, A Study of Administrative and Statutory Control, New Delhi, Gian Publishing House, 1990, 682 p.

 

 

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Raana, Irfan Mahmud, (1970), “Zakat” in: Economic System Under Umar the Great, Lahore, Shaikh Muhammad Ashraf, pp. 36-49.

RABIE, Hssanein, Some Financial Aspects of the Waqf System in Medieval Egypt, Cairo, Egyptian History Review, (Cairo, Egypt), 1971, Vol. 18, pp. 1-24.

RAD, PARVIZ S., "Theories of Ownership and Islam: A Case Study of the Islamic Republic of Iran", Review of Islamic Economics, Leicester, (9), 2000, pp.127-144. Summary: Focuses on comparative analysis of Islamic and other thoughts relating to proprietary right. Reviews the Islamic law of property and its application in post-Revolution Iran. Questions the treatment of ownership throughout Iranian history. Concludes that Islamic philosophy, private ownership is neither considered the unlimited right of people nor does it totally deny it (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHI, A. W., Lease Financing in Islamic Corporate Finance, Karachi, 1998, 15 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the Conference on Islamic Corporate Finance organized by the Centre for Islamic Economics, Karachi during 21-22 November 1998. Summary: Describes the concept of lease from the Shari’ah point of view. Shows the significance of leasing as a mode of finance. Discusses the basic Shari’ah rules relating to leasing. Identifies the issues arising from the use of leasing as a mode of finance (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHIM, M.A., “Some Early Works on Islamic Economics” Thoughts on Islamic Economics, Dhaka: Islamic Economics Research Bureau, 1980, pp.319-327.

RAHMAN, GOHAR, "Sud ke jawaz ke Liye Heelay," (Urdu) (Subterfuges to Legalize Interest) Tarjamanul Qur'an, Lahore, (126:6), June 1999, pp. 39-51. Summary: Argues that some of the present day scholars have devised a number of subterfuges to legalize interest in disguise. Lists those subterfuges and explains their mechanism. Thinks that these tricks cannot help legalize interest. People should beware of them (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, GOHAR, Hurmat e Sud (Urdu) (Prohibition of Interest), Lahore: Islamic Research Academy, Mansura-Lahore, 1993, 165 pp. Summary: A reply to the questionnaire issued by the Federal Shari’ah Court of Pakistan. Deals with the basic issues relating to definition, scope of riba and strategy of eliminating interest. Argues that riba covers all types of interest and the government should enact laws to abolish it. Considers that interest on provident funds is not riba. Similarly, difference between cash and credit prices is also not riba (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, S. M. H., "IBP:A Step Forward Towards Islamic Financing", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (17:2), April 2000, pp. 26-33. Summary: A brief description on incorporation and performance of Islamic banks' Portfolio scheme launched by the Islamic Development Bank Jeddah. The data is up to year 1418 AH (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, S. M. Habibur., "Islamic Economics Research Bureau, Bangladesh Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:4), Oct-Dec 1997, pp. 23-29. Summary: Gives a brief introduction to the Bureau. Enumerates its activities. or general readers. Undocumented (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, S.M. H., "Islamic Banking: Issues to be Addressed", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (19:1), Jan 2002, pp.25-37. Summary: Points out inadequacies in the existing Islamic banking practice from the Shari’ah perspective. Highlights tricks of Islamic banks for concealing interest without actually changing the substance. The practices of different banks also differ from each other making the Islamic position dubious for an ordinary person. The Islamic banks have also not played any role in economic development of social sectors and agriculture or for alleviation of poverty (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, TANZILUR, "Alternate to Riba," Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (15:4), Oct-Dec. 1998, pp.7-20. Summary: Discusses the concept of riba. Also discusses various alternative modes of finance like mudaraba, musharaka, ijara, time-multiple-counter-loans, and bai' mu'ajjal. Traces the history of Islamic banking in Pakistan. Points to need for necessary legal changes for making this change effective (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, TANZILUR, "Alternatives to Riba", Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XXIII:3), July 2000, pp. 65-75. Summary: In the background of Pakistani efforts to Islamize the entire financial sector during 1980s, surveys the various alternatives to riba-based banking. Analyzes the setback to the efforts in Pakistan (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, TANZILUR, "Interest-free Banking in Pakistan", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:4), Oct-Dec. 1997, pp. 6-10. Summary: Critically reviews the efforts of the Government of Pakistan in eliminating interest from the economy. Concludes that the Government has not been sincere all along in this respect (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, TANZILUR, "Mudaraba and Pakistan Perspective", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (19:1), Jan 2002, pp.7-10. Summary: Criticizes the Islamic banking practice in Pakistan, saying that it is only a change in name. Points out deficiencies in Pakistani mudaraba law (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAHMAN, TANZILUR, "Pakistan men Bila Sud Ma'eeshat ke Masa'il aur un ka Hall", (Urdu) (Problems of interest-free economy in Pakistan and their solution) Meethaq, Lahore, (46:9), Sept 1997, pp. 31-40. Summary: Describes the history of efforts made in Pakistan to transform the economy on interest-free basis. Enumerates Islamic modes of finance. Thinks that a gradual approach will be appropriate (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RAISSOUNI, Ahmed., Islamic Waqf Endowment: Scope and Implication,, Mohammedia (Morocco), ISESCO, 2001, 69 p.

RAKE, H.K. (Tr. & Ed.), The Book of Government and Rules for Kings (Siyasat Namah of Nizam al Mulk al Tusi), London: 1960.

Ramzan  Akhtar  (1996);   ‘Practice  and  Prospects  of  Musharakah Financing for Small Enterprises in Pakistan’   in Journal of Islamic Banking & Finance, Karachi.

RANA,  IRFAN  MAHMUD,  Economic  System  Under  Omar  The  Great, Lahore: Muhammad Ashraf, 1970, 152 p. See also : N45.3

Raquibuzzaman, M. (ed.), (1980), Some Aspects of the Economics of Zakah, Plainfield (Indiana), American Trust Publications, 229 p.

Raquibuzzaman, M., (1981), “Policy Implications of Introducing Zakah into Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia”, in: M. Raquibuzzaman (ed.), Some Aspects of the Economics of Zakah, Plainfield, North American Trust Publications, pp. 209-223.

Raquibuz-Zaman, M., (1987), Some Administrative Aspects of the Collection and Distribution of Zakah and The Distribution Effects of the Introduction of Zakah into Modern Economies, Jeddah, Scientific Publishing Centre, King Abdulaziz University, 74 p.

RASHID, S. K., “Awqaf Legilation in South Asia: A Comparative Study”, Awqaf (zero issue), Nov. 2000, pp. 5-36. Also in RASHID, Syed Khalid, (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit. pp. 63-111 in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf . . . Qum, 2002, Vol. 18, pp. 94-125.

RASHID, S. K., “Origin and Early History of Waqf and Other Issues”, in RASHID, Syed Khalid, (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op.cit. pp.11-28.

RASHID, S. Khalid and Husain, S. Athar, “Wakf Laws and Administration in India”, 2nd ed. Lucknow, 1973.

RASHID, S. Khalid, “Administration of Wakfs in India” Case Comment, Aligarh Law Journal, 1964, Vol. 1, pp. 137-146.

RASHID, S. Khalid, “How to Streamline Awkaf in India”, Radiance, (New Delhi, India), 1992, Vol. 27, No. 24, pp. 75-77.

RASHID, S. Khalid, “Tribunals for Wakf Disputes: A Proposal”, Aligarh Law Journal, 1978, Vol. VI, pp. 89-93.

RASHID, S. Khalid, “Unsuitability of the Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950 in Regards to Wakfs” Aligarh Law Journal, 1965, Vol. 2, pp. 135- 139.

RASHID, S. Khalid, Waqf Administration in India: A Socio-Legal Study, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, 1978, 184 p.

RASHID, SALIM, Review on “Economic Concept of Ibn  Taimiyah by A.A. Islahi, Pacific Affairs, Vol. 63, No. 4, 1991, pp. 547-549.

RASHID, Syed Khalid, (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, New Delhi, Institute of Objective Studies, 2002, 634 p.

RASHID, Syed Khalid, “Administration of Waqf in India: Some Suggestions”, in Tahir Mahmood (ed), Islamic Law in Modern India, Bombay, N. M. Tripathi, 1972, pp. 231-238.

RASHID, Syed Khalid, “Statutory and Judicial Deviations in the Law of Waqf in India” Experience in South Asia, New Delhi, Institute of Objective Studies, 2002, 634 p

RAY, NICHOLAS D., Arab Islamic Banking and the Renewal of Islamic Law, London: Graham & Trotman, 1995, 195 pp. Summary: Originally a PhD dissertation completed under the supervision of Professor Andrew Hess of Boston's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the book contains a review of Islamic banking concepts as well as experience. Argues that the existing literature on Islamic banking does not give a detailed financial analysis of an Islamic bank in comparison with conventional banks. It concentrates mainly, on juridical rules. Gives a critical review of Islamic financial modes as being practiced by the Islamic financial institutions. Analyses extensively balance sheets of Islamic banks. Raises several new issues relating to Islamic financial law (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Razavi, Mehdi B., (1983), “Zakat and Khoms” in: Modeling an Islamic Economic System: An Interaction Delivery Matrix and Boolean Digraph Approach, Linder University of Nebraska, Ph.D. Thesis, pp. 161-64.

Regulations for Income Tax, Road Tax, and Zakat (1978), Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Finance and National Economy, 555 p.

REHMAN, TANZILUR, The Judgment That Could Not be Delivered, Karachi: Royal Book Company, 1994, 151 pp. Summary: The author, while being the Chief Justice of the Federal Shari’ah Court in Pakistan prepared this judgment and retired from service before he could deliver it. The judgment remained undelivered. Deals with the question whether an Islamic government or its corporate bodies could lawfully enter into agreements with other governments or corporate bodies for the payment of interest on loans. Explores the question in the light of fiqh, hadith and Qur‟anic literature. Concludes that the Islamic governments or other bodies cannot lawfully enter into agreements for paying interest on their loans. Thus section 19 of the Shari’ah Act of Pakistan was also ultra vires the Shari’ah (Muhammad Akram Khan).

REILLY, James, “Rural Wakfs of Ottoman Damascus, Right of Ownership, Possession and Tenancy”, Acta Orientalia (Denmark), 1990, Vol. 51, pp. 27-47.

REITER, Y., “Family Waqf Entitlements in British Palestine (1917- 1948)”, Islamic Law and Society, 1995, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 174-93.

REITER, Y., “The Waqf Institution in Acre” (unpublished M.A. thesis), Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, 1986.

REITER, Y., Islamic Endowments in Jerusalem under British Mandate (London, Frank Cass Publishers, 1986).

REITER, Yitzhak, “The Administration and Supervision of Waqf Properties in 20th Century Jerusalem” in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf …, Qum, 2002, Vol. 69, pp. 143-157.

Report of the Committee Appointed by the Prime Minister of Review of the Existing System of Zakat and Ushr, (1992), Islamabad, Central Zakat Administration, Government of Pakistan.

Report on Elimination of Riba, 1997, 114 pp. Unpublished report of the Commission for Islamization of Economy, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Summary: Report prepared under the chairmanship of Raja Zafarul Haq. Reiterates the basic teachings of Islam relating to economy. Reviews the effo rts earlier made with regard to elimination of interest from the economy of Pakistan. Proposes a strategy to proceed further and rectify the mistakes made so far. Presents a draft law for the prohibition of riba. Also analyses probable effect of the prohibition of riba on various macroeconomic indicators of the economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

RICHARDS, D.S., “A Damascus Scroll Relating to a Waqf for the Yunusivva, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 1990, No. 2, pp. 267-281.

RIZVI, S. RIZWAN ALI, “The Siyasat Namah (The Book of Government) of Nizam al Mulk Tusi”, Islamic Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2, Summer 1981, p.129. 

RIZWANUL-HAQ, Mohammad, “Waqf Experience in India”, in Rashid, S. Khalid (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit. pp.125- 140.

RODED, R., “Great Mosques, Zawiyas and Neighborhood Mosques: Popular Beneficiaries of Waqf Endowments in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Aleppo,” Journal of the American Oriental Society,1990, Vol. 110, pp. 32-38.

RODED, R., “Quantitative Analysis of Waqf Endowment Deeds: A Pilot Project”, Osmanli Arastirmalari (The Journal of Ottoman Studies), 1989, No. 9, pp. 51-76.

RODED, R., “The Waqf in Ottoman Aleppo: A Quantitative Analysis”, Paper Presented at the International Seminar on Social and Economic Aspects of the Muslim Waqf, Jerusalem, June 24-28, 1979.

RODED, R., “The Waqf Institution and the Social Elite of Aleppo in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries”, Turcica, (Paris, France), 1988, Vol. 20, pp. 71-91.

ROGERS, Michael, Waqfiyyas and Waqf-Registers, New Primary Service for Islamic Architecture, Kunst Des Orient, (Germany), 1976-77, Vol. 11, pp. 182-96.

ROSLY, SAIFUL AZHAR, "al-Bay' Bithaman Ajil Financing: Impacts on Islamic Banking Performance," Thunderbird International Business Review, New York, (41:4-5), July 1999, pp.461-480. Summary: Argues that the dual banking system of Malaysia where the Islamic banking co-exists with the conventional impacts adversely on the performance of Islamic banks. The reason is that the conventional banks are more flexible in adjusting the rate of interest as compared to Islamic banks which cannot change their rate of mark-up that quickly (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ROSLY, SAIFUL AZHAR, "Islamic Convertible Bonds", in Proceedings of the Third Harvard University Forum on Islamic Finance, Cambridge: Harvard Islamic Finance Information Program, 1999, 179-189 pp. Summary: Provides a critical overview of Islamic debt securities in Malaysia and ways to make them more attractive to global Islamic funds. Attempts to design an Islamic convertible bond. Explains strengths and advantages of the proposed bonds (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ROSLY, SAIFUL AZHAR, "The Application of Bay' al-Inah and Bay' al-Dayn in Malaysian Islamic Bonds: An Islamic Analysis", International Journal of Islamic Financial Services, Online, (1:2), July 1999, pp.1-21. Summary: Financial contracts involving use of bai' al-inah and bai' al-dayn have been extensively used in design of Malaysian Islamic bonds. Argues that both these mechanisms have been found unacceptable by the majority of Islamic scholars and proposes the use of financing based on muqarada and musharaka principles as genuine alternatives to interest-bearing financial instruments (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ROSLY, SAIFUL AZHAR, Bay 'an Dayn and Islamic Bonds Issues in Malaysia, 21 pp. Unpublished. Paper presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by the International Islamic University Malaysia, during 9-12 August, 1999 at Kuala Lumpur. Summary: Argues that the issuance of the bond is a mode of deferred payments arising from murabaha. If they are at par value, they are covered by the Shari’ah. Discounting of these bonds by investors to the issuers is also covered by the Shari’ah. However, discounting by third parties is not covered. In general, the bond should be avoided as a debt-based economy is not in the spirit of Islam (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ROUBAIE, AMER al-, "The Global Age: An Application to Societal Change in Muslim Societies," al-Shajara: Journal of ISTAC, Malaysia, (3:1), 1998, pp. 85-117. Summary: Argues that the Western onslaught of globalization is not mindful of the cultural and social differences of various societies and if followed carelessly can lead to crushing of Muslim identity. As compared to this the   Muslim   civilization   in   its    heyday   created    an environment whereby local cultures and values could co-exist with the Islamic civilization. In the present age when the Muslim societies are very weak, they should reform their educational system to meet the challenge of Western campaign for globalization (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ROUBAIE, AMER, al-, Economic Development Management: An Islamic Perspective, 1998, 25pp. Unpublished. Presented to the First international Conference on Islamic Economic Development Management organized by the Universiti Sains Malaysia during 8-10 December 1998. Summary: Asserts that Islamic development management presents a comprehensive approach to social change as compared to Western economic approach that revolves around per capita income or output. Basic purpose of development in Islam is to enhance human welfare not only in terms of material requirements but also with respect to spiritual development (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ROY, OLIVIER, "The Islamic Economy: Between Illusion and Rhetoric", in The Failure of Political Islam, London: I.B. Tauris & Co, 1994, pp. 132-146. Summary: Islamic economy is an empty concept. It draws inspiration from the Western classics. Illustrates the point with citations from the Qur‟an and positions Islam as solution to all problems. The Muslim economists have never defined what and will look like in the present age. The Islamic banking concept is in fact a reconciliation of capitalistic practices and the Islamic prohibition against interest. In practice also, Islamic economy did not exist anywhere. Its experiment in some countries has not borne fruit. The efforts to eliminate interest have resulted in multiplication of ruses. There is a total absence of economic analysis. Islamic economy is the filling in of a matrix borrowed from the West with legal terminology based on an ethical anthropology (Muhammad Akram Khan).

 

 

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SAADALLAH, RIDHA, Financing Trade in an Islamic Economy, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1999, 70 pp. Summary: Discusses various modes of Islamic finance for trade such as murabaha, participatory short-term and medium-term finance for standard commodities, long-term finance for capital goods, and PLS securities. Discusses their economic implications as well (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SAARISALO, Aapeli, "A Waqf Document from Sinai," Studia Orientalia, Vol. 5. Part 1. pp. 6-24. SIMSAR, M. Ahmad, The Waqfiyah of Ahmad Pasha, Philadelphia, 1940.

SAARISALO, Aapeli, "The Turkish Waqf, Studia Orientalia”, 1953, Vol. 19x, 6 p.

Sabiq, al-Sayyid, (1986), “Zakah in Islamic Jurisprudence”, in: Fiqh us- Sunnah (English Translation) by Abdul-Majid Khokhar et al.), Indianapolis, American Trust Publication, pp. 1-108. Also published undated as Fiqh us-Suunah – Doctrine of Sunnah of the Holy Prophet, New Delhi: Millat Book Centre, vol. 1, pp. 373-479.

SABRA, ADAM, Poverty and Charity in Medieval Islam: Mamluk Egypt, 1250-1517, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 192 pp. Summary: Originally a PhD dissertation submitted to the near Eastern Studies Department of the Princeton University. By focusing on Mamluk Cairo, the author explores the attitude of medieval Muslims to poverty and the experiences of being poor in an Islamic society. He considers the role of pious endowments (a wqaf) in providing food, education, and medical care to the poor of the medieval Egypt. Compares the scene of poverty of the same period with that prevalent in Europe and China (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Sabzwari, M. A., (1979), “Zakah and Ushr – A Comprehensive Insight”, Islamic Order, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 49-70.

Sabzwari, M. A., (1979), Zakah and Ushr with Special Reference to Pakistan, Karachi, Industrial Printing Press, 64 p.

SADEQ, A. H .M., "Islamic Ethics in Human Resource Management", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management,   London: Asean Press,   2001,   pp. 285-302. Summary: The major principles of Islamic ethics are: brotherhood, benevolence, justice, fulfilling contracts, peoples' rights, fair compensation, cooperation, trust and honesty. He translates these principles into various management practices relating to human resource development such as recruitment, training, performance evaluation, compensation, work and stress , corporate culture, and leadership (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SADEQ, A. H. M., "Entrepreneurship Development and Training: An Islamic Perspective", Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XX:4), Oct-Dec 1997, pp. 37-44. Argues that the Islamic economic system encourages entrepreneurship. But the present day Muslim states lag far behind the Islamic ideal. They should invest in teaching entrepreneurship to their people (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SADEQ, A. H. M., "Poverty Eradication: An Islamic Perspective", Thoughts on Economics, Dhaka, (6:3), Jul-Sep 1996, pp. 7-26. Summary: Gives a framework for measuring poverty. Describes the Islamic framework for fighting poverty (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SADEQ, A. H. M., Socio-Economic Development Role of Waqf in the 21st Century and Restructuring of Its Administration, 26 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in the 21st Century organized by the IIU Malaysia at Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August, 1999. Summary: Argues that in the present day we need to plan creation of waqfs where people could place funds for long-term and short-term. Special waqf certificates may be created for this purpose. Studies waqf institutions of Bangladesh and makes recommendations for restructuring them (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SADEQ, A.H.M., A Survey of the Institution of Zakah: Issues, Theories, and Administration, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1994, 71 pp. Summary: Surveys the literature on zakah relating to economics of zakah, legal issues such as nisab, rates, tamlik, and administration of zakah. A good summary of the literature (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SADEQ, ABUL HASAN M. and GHAZALI, AIDIT, (eds.) Readings in Islamic Economic Thought, Kuala Lumpur: Longman Malaysia, 1992, 272 p.

SADEQ, ABUL HASAN M., “Al Ghazali on Economic Issues and Some Ethico-Juristic  Matters  having  Implications  for  Economic  Behaviour”  in Abul Hasan Sadeq & Aidit Ghazali (eds.): Readings in Islamic Economic Thought, Kuala Lumpur: Longman Malaysia, 1992, pp. 88-110.

Sadeq, Abul Hasan, (1990), “Voluntary and Compulsory Applications of Zakah: A Case Study of Sudan 1405 – 1410H”, Paper Presented at the Third International Conference on Zakah, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 14-17 May.

Sadeq, Abul Hasan, (1994), A Survey of the Distribution of Zakah: Issues, Theories and Administrations, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, 71 p.

SADEQ, Abulhasan M., “Awqaf in Bangladesh” in Rashid S. Khalid (ed.), Waqf Experience in South Asia, op. cit., pp. 159-171.

SAEED, M., "A Survey of Management from an Islamic /Perspective", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, Kuala Lumpur, (5:1), 1997, pp. 87-100. Summary: Gives a survey of the literature on Islamic management. For researchers and managers. Documented (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SAEED, M., "Entrepreneurship in an Islamic Ethical Framework," New Horizon, London, (82), Dec 1998, pp. 11-13. Summary: Highlights the role of moral and ethical values in entrepreneurship development in an Islamic framework. Focuses on issues such as R&D as a pre-requisite for entrepreneurship as well as development of entrepreneurial ventures as learning organizations (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SAFIULLAH, SHEIKH M., "New Managers in the Egyptian Public Sector During the Nasser Era", in Ehsan Ahmed (ed.), Role of Private and Public Sectors in Economic Development in an Islamic Perspective,   Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought,   1996,   Pp. 167-182. Summary: Argues that capitalist trained managers were used for implementing socialist policies by Nasser of Egypt. The experiment did not work out. For implementing Islamic system, the public servants must be trained in Islamic norms (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Sakr, Ahmad H. (1994), “Zakat (Alms Giving)”, in: the Book of Inquiries, Lombard (Illinois, USA), Foundation for Islamic Knowledge, Vol. 2, pp.46-60.

Salama,    Abdin    Ahmed;   ‘Financial   Instruments   and   Liquidity Management’ in New Horizon, July, 2001.

SALAMA, ABDIN A., "Housing Finance In Islamic Countries" in Mahdi, Mahmoud Ahmad (ed.) Islamic Banking Modes for Building Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, pp.27-36. Summary: Presented to a Workshop on housing finance held at Khartoum during 27-29 October 1991 by Islamic Research and Training Institute and Sudanese Estate Bank. Discusses Islamic methods of financing for house building such as murabaha, bai' istisna', and decreasing partnership. Also discusses the problems relating to registration fee, and housing certificates being used in Turkey. Recommends the use of these certificates (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SALAMA, ABDIN A., "The Need for an International Documentation Centre for Islamic Banking and Finance", NewHorizon, London, (115), Dec 2001-Jan 2002, pp. 3-5. Summary: Emphasizes need for setting up an international centre for Islamic economics which should be responsible for collecting and disseminating documents relating to Islamic banking and finance. The centre should collect all books, journals, PhD dissertations, documentation of Islamic banking products, fatwas, etc and act as a storehouse for providing the information to researchers and scholars (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Salama, Abdin Ahmad, (1982), “Fiscal Analysis of Zakah with Special Reference to Saudi Arabia’s Experience” in: Mohamed Ariff (ed.), Monetary and Fiscal Economics, Jeddah, ICREI, pp. 341-364, also in: Gulaid, Mahamoud, pp. 387-417.

Salama, Abdin Ahmad, (1995), “Empirical Economic Effects of Obligatory and Non-Obligatory Payment of Zakah to the State”, in: el-Ashker, Abdel-Fattah and Muhammad Sirajul Haq (eds.), (1995), Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, Jeddah, IRTI, IDB, pp. 151-61.

SALAMA, ABIDIN A., "Financial Instruments and Liquidity Management", New Horizon, London, (119), July 2001, pp. 3-7. Summary: Addresses the question of mismatch of maturities faced by the Islamic financial institutions. They do not have assets for very short periods such as one day, one week or one month. Perforce, they have to face the problem of liquidity surplus. Makes a number of suggestions for handling the problem (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SALAMON, HUSSIN, "Speculation in the Stock Market from an Islamic Perspective", Review of Islamic Economics, Leicester, (9), 2000, pp.103-126. Summary: Examines the Islamicity of speculation on stock exchange. Suggests how we can establish an alternative for speculative transactions (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SALAMON, HUSSIN, The Problem of Speculation in Stock Market from Islamic Perspective: Investment as an Alternative, 1998, 50 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the First International Conference on Islamic Economic Development Management organized by the Universiti Sains Malaysia during 8-10 December 1998. Summary: Raises the question: Are the Muslims allowed to participate in stock market transactions which everywhere these days? If not, what is the alternative Islam offers? Argues that speculation is akin to gambling and hence not permitted in Islam. The Muslims must invest the money through stock market but should not gamble. The government should regulate the stock market in such a manner that it becomes impossible to speculate (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SALATI, Marco “Urban Notables, Private Waqf and Capital Investment: The Case of the 17th Century Zuhrawi Family of Aleppo” in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.), Kumuz al Waqf fi’l Alam al Islami, Qum, 2002, Vol. 62, pp. 180-194.

SALEEM, M. AHSAN, Short Term Islamic Corporate Financing: a  Case Study, Karachi, 1998, 7 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the Conference on Islamic Corporate Finance, organized by Centre for Islamic Economics, Karachi during 21-22 November 1998. Summary: Discusses salient features of a financial instrument developed by a firm of chartered accountants for the author's company for raising finance on basis of Shari’ah-approved mechanism (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Saleh, M. Ismail, (1980), “Distribution of Zakah Burden on Padi Resources in Malaysia”, in: Raqibuzzaman (ed.), Some Aspects of Economics of Zakah, AMSS, Plainfield, Indiana, American Trust Publications, USA, pp. 80-15.

SALLEH, M. SYUKRI, Conceptualizing Islamic Development Management, 1998, 17 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the First International Conference on Islamic Economic Development Management organized by the Universiti Sains Malaysia during 8-10 December 1998. Summary: Clarifies the concept of Islamic economic development management and compares it the with western concept of economic development. Discusses various issues relating to the concept of Islamic economic development management (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SAMAD, ABDUS, "The Performance of Malaysian Islamic Bank during 1984-1997: An Exploratory Study, Thoughts on Economics, Dhaka, (10:1-2), Jan-June 2000, pp. 7-26. Summary: Uses ratio-analysis for analyzing performance of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad during 1984-1997. Concludes that the bank made significant progress on basis of return on assets and return on equity. The bank was no different as compared to conventional banks on these regards. However, the Islamic bank was more liquid as compared to conventional banks (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SARKAR, M. A. AWWAL, "Why Islamic Banks have So Far Failed in Adopting the Two Major Modes of Financing, Mudaraba and Musharaka?" New Horizon, London, (79), Sept. 1998, pp. 14-17. Summary: Based on contemporary data, argues that about 80% of the business of Islamic banks is around mark-up financing. Analyzes reasons for this. Suggests that the Islamic banks must move toward mudaraba and musharaka if they have to play the intended role (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SARKER, ABDUL AWAL, "Agency Problems: Its Nature, Characteristics and Relevance with the Islamic Modes of Contracts," NewHorizon, London, (84), Feb. 99, pp.9-13. Summary: Discusses the problem of maximization of profit under an agency contract such as when a bank provides funds to a business firm on profit-loss-sharing basis. In such a case, there remains a possibility that the agent does not perform to the best of its ability. Argues that in an Islamic economy, an Islamic firm implements the business contracts as designed and approved by the Shari’ah, then the principal-agent problem will be minimized and society will benefit more from the welfare motive of the producer and market agents (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SARKER, M. A. AWWAL, "Islamic Business Contracts, Agency Problems and the Theory of Islamic Firm", Thoughts on Economics, Dhaka, (10:3-4), Jul-Dec 2000, pp.53-78. Summary: Discusses various forms of Islamic business organization from juridical point of view. Highlights the problem of agency in such contracts as mudaraba and suggests how to handle it. The last part develops a theory of Islamic firm (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Sarwar, Col. Ghulam (1985), Review on "M. A. S. Siddiqi, Zakat Law and Ijthihad", Islamic Studies (Islamabad), Vol. 24, No. 2, Summer, pp. 268-270.

Sato, H., (1987), Understanding Zakat: An Inquiry into the Methodological Problems of the Science of Economics, Niigata (Japan), Institute of Middle Eastern Studies, 115 p.

SAYED, AFZAL, "Place for Expenditure Tax in the Islamic Fiscal System", Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (11), 1999, pp.29-58. Summary: Develops a case for introducing expenditure tax in Muslim countries. Thinks that the tax would be in line with overall Shari’ah framework, besides having a number of merits on economic grounds (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SCHACHT, J., "Early Doctrines on Waqf" in 60. Dogun Yili Munasebetiyli Fuad Koprulu Armagani , Istanbul, 1953, pp. 443-52.

SCHACHT, J., “Early Doctrines on Waqfs”, Mel Kopulu, 1953, pp. 443-52.

Schacht, Joseph (1934), "Zakat", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam (edited by M. Th. Houtsma et al (old edition), London: Luzac and Co. and Leyden: Late E.J. Brill, Vol. 4, pp.1202-1205.

SCOON, FARID, "Musharaka and Mudaraba - Toward Rationalization," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 355-359. Summary: Musharaka and mudaraba have not taken root in Islamic banking . One suggestion is that the Islamic banks consciously adopt the policy of setting aside a certain percentage of their funds for investment through these modes. However, this would also require training of the banking staff in various trades other than financing (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Scott, James, C., (1987), “Resistance without Protest and Without Organization: Peasant Opposition to the Islamic Zakat and the Christian Tithe”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 29, pp. 417-452.

Security” in: Outlines of Islamic Economics, Indianapolis, AMSS, USA,

SERJEANT, R.B., “Al Zaidi Manual of Hisba of The Third Century (H)", Rivista Degli Studi Orientali, 1953, Vol. 28, pp. 1-34.

Shad, Abdur Rahman, (1986), Zakat and Ushr, Kazi Publication, Lahore, 104 p.

Shaghil, M., (1989), “Islamic Economics: Central Banking, Public Finance and Zakat”, in: Islamic Economics A Global Perspective, New Delhi, Ashish Publishing House, pp. 121-33.

SHAHAB, RAFIULLAH, "Nizam-i-Zakat: The Fiscal System of the Islamic State," Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XXI: 4), Oct.1998, pp.41-45. Summary: A simple description of the system of zakah. Argues that all capital including machinery is subject to zakah. Similarly, the lands of Pakistan are kharaji lands and the government should levy kharaj on them (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SHAHAB, RAFIULLAH, Bahbud e Abadi ka Islamic Tasawwur (Islamic Concept of Population Welfare) (Urdu),   Lahore: Dost Associates, Al-Karim Market, 1992, 166 pp. Summary: Argues that family planning is legitimate in Islam. It helps in improving the welfare of the individuals (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SHAHAM, Ron, "Masters, Their Freed Slaves, and the Waqf in Egypt (18th-20th Centuries)," Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 2000,, Vol. 43, pp. 162-188.

SHAHID, KH. NASIM, Islami ma'ashiyat: Nau'iyat aur Bunyaden (Urdu) (Islamic Economics: Nature and Foundations), Islamabad: Idarah Ma'ashiyat e Islami, 1997, 160 pp. Summary: Discusses the need and nature of Islamic economics. Reviews definitions of Islamic economics in the literature and develops his own definition. Argues that there is need for a distinct branch of knowledge to be known as "Islamic Economics". Discusses ethical foundations of Islamic economics (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Shaik, Abdool Aziz, (1980), “Concept of Zakah: A Survey of Qur’anic Texts and Their Explanation in Shari’ah and Contemporary Economics”, in: M. Raquibuzzaman (ed.), Some Aspects of the Economics of Zakah, Plainfield, North American Trust Publications, pp. 3-68.

Shaikh, A. Qadir, (1977), “Zakat and Taxation” in: Outlines of Islamic Economics, Indiana, AMSS, pp. 5-12.

SHAJARI, H., "The Interest Rate and the Islamic Banking", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (3:1), Dec 95, pp. 115-122. Summary: Argues that omitting the rate of interest as price of money is not possible. Suggests that deposits may be treated as a kind of purchasing power which it has received from the owners of the deposits and must at the time of repayment pay its equal. Due to this, a new variable called, "Compensation Rate" has been introduced. This rate would create a proportional stability of the purchasing power with a coefficient adjustment. During periods of inflation it protects against diminution in value (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SHAKIR, IKRAM, "Tomorrow's Takaful Products," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking,  London: Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance, 2000,  pp. 463-467. Summary: The Islamic takaful companies should carefully study the changes taking place in the Western societies. In the light of this analysis they should develop suitable products. The takaful products of tomorrow would be pension and annuity products, long-term products, and medical care products (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SHALTUT, KHALIL, "The Experience of the al-Baraka International Bank London in Financing Real Estate", in Mahdi, Mahmoud Ahmad (ed.), Islamic Banking Modes for Building Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, pp.119-139. Summary: Presented to a workshop on housing finance held at Khartoum during 27-29 October 1991 by Islamic Research and Training Institute and the Sudanese Estate Bank. Explains various methods of fi nancing followed by the bank in financing house building. Illustrates rent-sharing techniques with concrete mathematical examples (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SHAMIM, Qaiser, “Waqf Experience in India”, Islam and the Modern Age, Feb. 2000, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 41-62.

SHARAFUDDIN,   ABDUL   MUHSIN   MUHAMMAD,   “Abu   Jafar   al Dawudi’s Kitab al Amwal”, Islamic Studies (Rawalpindi), Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec. 1965, pp. 441-448.

Shariah   Appellate   Bench   (SAB),   Supreme   Court   of   Pakistan, ‘Judgment on Riba’; Shariat Law Reports, Lahore, February 2000.

SHARIF, M. I. M, "The Development of Islamic Banking: Juridical and Practical Issues - Is the Law Equipped?" New Horizon, London, (116), Feb 2002, pp.3-6. Summary: Discusses development of Islamic banking in Malaysia from a legal point of view. Points out some of the deficiencies in the Malaysian lawon Islamic banking. Makes proposal for amending the law (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Sharif, Raihan M., (1976), “Meaning of Zakat” in: Islamic Social Framework, Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, pp. 178-91.

SHARIFF, Abusaleh, “Professional Approach to the Management of Waqf Properties in India, Seminar on a Wqaf Experiences in South Asia, New Delhi, May 8-10, 1991.

SHARON, M., “A Waqf Inscription from Ramlah”, Arabica,(Leiden, Netherlands), 1996, Vol. 13, pp. 77-84.

Shehab, Rafiullah (1999), “Nizam-I-Zakat – The Fiscal System of the Islamic State”, Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance (Karachi,Pakistan), Vol. 16, No. 3, July-Sept, pp. 32-39.

Shehatah, S. Ismail, (1989), Limitations of Use of Zakah Funds in Financing Socio-Economic Infrastructure of Society, in: I. A. Imtiazi, et al., (eds.), op. cit., pp. 57-73, also in: Islamic Economic Studies (Jeddah), Vol. 1, No. 2, June, 1994, pp. 63-78.

Shemesh, A. Ben (ed.), (1967), “Kharaj Land and Ushr Land” in: Taxation in Islam, Vol. I (Yahya Ben Adam’s Kitab al-Kharaj), Leiden E.J. Bill, pp. 28-33, 83-88.

Shemesh, A. Ben (Tr.), (1969), “Ushr and Kharaj Lands” in: Taxation in Islam, Vol. III (Abu Yusuf’s Kitab al-Kharaj), Leiden E.J. Bill, London, Luzac & Co. Ltd., pp. 78-84.

SHEMESH, A. BEN, Taxation in Islam (Translation of Kitab al Kharaj), Vol. I, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967, 172 pp.

SHEMESH, A. BEN, Taxation in Islam (Translation of Qudamah bin Jafar’s Kitab al Kharaj), Vol. II, Leiden: Brill, 1965, 146 p.

SHEMESH, A. BEN, Taxation in Islam, Vol. III, edited Translation of Abu Yusuf’s Kitab al Kharaj, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1969, 155 pp.

SHERWANI,    H.K.,    “Ibn-i-Taimiyah’s    Economic    Thought”,  Islamic Literature, (Lahore), Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1956, pp. 9-22.

Shim, Ui Sup, (1987), Zakat and Korean Kye as a Financial Institution in the Early Communal Society: A Comparative Approach, Yarmouk, Yarmouk University Mimeo, 29 p.

Shirazi,   Habib   (1990);   ‘Islamic   Banking’,   (Iran),   Butterworths, London. Ray,  Nicholas  Dylan;  ‘Arab  Islamic  Banking  and  the  Renewal  of Islamic Law’; Grahm & Trotman, 1995.

Shirazi, Nasim Shah (1996), System of Zakat in Pakistan: An Appraisal. Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University.

SHIRAZI, NASIM SHAH, "The Impact of Zakah and „Ushr: Some Empirical Findings for Pakistan", in Mohibulhaq Sahibzada (ed.), Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan, Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 1997, pp. 335-348. Summary: Based on household income surveys by the Federal Statistical Bureau, Government of Pakistan, determines the extent of poverty in Pakistan. Estimates the role being played by zakah and ushr in alleviating poverty in Pakistan. Concludes that the role is only marginal at present (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SHIRAZI, NASIM SHAH, System of Zakat in Pakistan: An appraisal, Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Economics, 1996, 156 pp. Summary: Gives background of the zakah law in Pakistan. Moves on to zakah distribution and its effect on poverty alleviation in Pakistan. Uses Household Income Survey Data published by the Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan in 1990-91. Concludes that zakah has affected the income levels of over 1.73 million people. But since the size of population suffering from poverty is very large and the assistance provided by zakah is inadequate, the society as a whole has not been able to alleviate poverty. Gives a number of suggestions. Provides a comprehensive bibliography (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Sidat, Ibrahim, (1980), “Who is Liable to Zakah”, Pakistan Economist, Karachi, Vol. 20, No. 27, July 5, pp. 22-23.

SIDDIQI,  M.N.,  “Islamic Economic Thought: Foundation, Evolution and Needed  Direction”,  in  Abul Hasan  M.  Sadeq  and  Aidit  Ghazali  (eds.), Reading  in  Islamic  Thought, Kuala Lumpur, Longman Malaysia, 1992, pp. 14-32.

SIDDIQI, ADEEL, "De-linking Islamic Finance from LIBOR",Islamic Banker, London, Oct.1995, pp. 2-3. Summary: Argues that the Islamic banks must de-link themselves from such benchmarks as LIBOR and develop their own benchmark, based on an interest-free framework (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQI, ASMA (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking, London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, 652 pp. Summary: A collection of 111 articles on various aspects of Islamic banking . Covers twelve areas as follows: concept, evolution, monetary policy, financial markets, financial products, accounting and taxation, insurance, zakah, Shari’ah supervision, research and development, reflections and future challenges. The articles are written by scholars and practitioners of repute (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Siddiqi, M. A. Saeed, (1983), Early Development of Zakat Law and Ijtihad, Karachi, Islamic Research Academy, 224 p.

Siddiqi, M. N. (2001), “Zakah, Ushr and Khums” in: Islamic Public Economics (tr. Sayed Afzal Peerzade), Delhi, Idarah-i- Adabiyat-i-Delli, pp. 12-25.

Siddiqi, M. N., (2005), “Zakat and Fiscal Policy” in: Teaching Islamic Economics", Jeddah, Scientific Publishing Centre, pp. 44-46.

SIDDIQI, M.N., "Islamic Banks: Concept, Percept and Prospects", Review of Islamic Economics, Leicester, (9), 2000, pp. 21-35. Summary: Originally presented to a seminar organized by the Research Centre, al-Rajhi Banking and Investment Corporation in June 1996. Updated for the present publication. Emphasizes the role of Islamic banks as financial intermediaries. Argues that Islamic banks' entering directly into trade, industry and agriculture, etc. is not beneficial because it means leaving the role of financial intermediation for others. Islamic banks can adopt the Islamic modes of finance such as mudaraba, murabaha, salam, istisna, and ijara on the pattern of two-tier mudaraba, without banks directly entering into the real sector. Emphasizes need for innovation by the Islamic banks for enhancing liquidity, transferring risk and generating revenue (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQI, M.N., “Muslim Economic Thinking: A Survey of Contemporary Literature on Islamic Economics” Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1980, pp. 91-316.

SIDDIQI, M.N., Recent Works on History of Economic Thought in Islam - A Survey,  Jeddah:  International Centre  for  Research  in  Islamic  Economics, 1982, 60 p.

Siddiqi, S. A., (1979), “Zakat” in: Public Finance in Islam, Lahore, Sh Muhammad Ashraf, pp. 8-64, 150-70.

SIDDIQI, Z., “The Muhtasib under Aurangzeb” Medieval India, Quarterly, 1963, Vol. 7.

Siddiqui, M. Nejatullah:  (a)  ‘Banking  Without  Interest ’, The Islamic Foundation, 1976; (b) ‘Issues In Islamic Banking’, The Islamic Foundation, 1983; (c) ‘Some Economic Aspects of Mudarabah: Review of   Islamic   Economics’,   Journal   of   International   Association   For Islamic Economics, Vol.1, No.2, 1991, pp.21-34; (d) ‘Partnership And Profit  Sharing  In  Islamic  Law’, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK,1985,   (e) “Muslim    Economic    Thinking:   A   Survey   of Contemporary  Literature  In  Studies In  Islamic  Economics” ,  The Islamic Foundation, 1981.

SIDDIQUI, SHAHID HASAN, " Islamization of Banking in Pakistan", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:4), Oct-Dec 1997, pp. 11-22. Summary: Thinks that the political will to eliminate interest from the economy in Pakistan has been weak all along. The system of banking after the so-called Islamization has become more exploitative. The Government should regulate the banks and protect the interest of savers (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQUI, SHAHID HASAN, "Establishment of Model Islamic Bank is Need of the Hour - Interest-free Banking as Adopted in Pakistan is Un-Islamic", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:2), April 1997, pp.7-12. Summary: Criticizes the Islamic banking in Pakistan and concludes that it is both un-Islamic as well as exploitative. Proposes the formation of a Model Islamic Bank (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQUI, SHAHID HASAN, "Islamic Banking System - A Word of Caution", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (14:3), July' 1997, pp.7-18. Summary: The Islamic banks exist in 54 countries but none has developed innovative products or designed schemes for the common man. Some of the Islamic banks were facing problem of excess liquidity. Recommends measures for success of Islamic banking (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQUI, SHAHID HASAN, "Islamic Banking: True Modes of Financing", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (19:1), Jan 2002, pp. 11-24. Summary: Criticizes the present state of Islamic banking in Pakistan. Considers that true modes of financing compatible with Islam are mudaraba and musharaka. Point out inadequacies of other modes of finance being practiced by the Islamic banks. Proposes design of a model Islamic bank (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQUI, SHAHID HASAN, "Islamic Banking: True Modes of Financing," Journal of islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (16:4), Oct. 1999, pp. 7-15. Summary: Criticizes the present practice of Islamic banking because of various subterfuges which it has adopted. Proposes a model Islamic banking on ideal islamic lines (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQUI, SHAHID HASAN, "Islamic Development Bank: Prospects and Challenges," Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (16:1), Jan 1999, pp. 7-19. Summary: A general introduction to the Islamic Development Bank Jeddah. Discusses its various financing modes and the progress made. Points out various challenges with respect to complete Islamization in an un-Islamic world (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIDDIQUI, SHAMIM AHMAD, "Factors of Production and Factor Returns Under Political Economy of Islam," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (8), 1996, pp. 3-29. Summary: Critically reviews the traditional classification and definition of different factors of production and the way their returns are determined under neoclassical framework. Also analyzes some suggested changes in these definitions made by contemporary Muslim economists. The issue of land ownership, land-rent and share-cropping is discussed in historical and Islamic perspective. An attempt is made to synthesize competing theories of demand and supply of labor and wage determination. The issue of physical and monetary capital is discussed both in the traditional and an Islamic context. Finally, the importance of the role of entrepreneurship, particularly for an Islamic economic system, is emphasized (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIMONSEN,   JORGAN   BACK,   Studies   in   the   Genesis   and   Early Development of the Caliphal Taxation System with Special Reference to the Circumstances in the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt and Palestine, Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlog, 1988, 233 p.

SIRAGELDIN, ISMAIL, "Elimination of Poverty: Challenges and Islamic Strategies", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (8:1), Oct 2000, pp1-16. Summary: Focuses on basic tenets of Islamic ethical system. Suggests that the policies to eliminate poverty should not lead to greater dependency or amoral activities. Policies based on transfers that do not lift the poor from dependency status should not be adopted except in cases where such shift is not feasible. Concludes that Islamic ethics support a poverty-alleviation strategy based on the principle of promoting economic growth with productive equity (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIRAGELDIN, ISMAIL, "Islam, Society and Economic Policy", The Pakistan Development Review, Islamabad, (34:4), Winter 1995, pp. 457-478. Summary: Based on S.N.H. Naqvi's model of four axioms, tries to show how ethical values can be translated into economic policy and still keep the system efficient and competitive. Cites three case studies: Iran, Kuwait and Singapore. The first two refer to the case of Islamic economies while the third refers to a non-Islamic economy with its own set of ethical values and norms (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIRAJ, M. A. HADI al-, "Mudaraba, Musharaka and Ijara", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1998, pp. 87-93. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Discusses basic principles of shirka, mudaraba and ijara (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SIRAJ, M. A. HADI al-,"Qurud, Buyu, and Riba", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank , 1998, pp. 79-86. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Discusses basic rules relating to riba, riba al-fadl, and sale transactions in Islam (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Social History of the Orient, 1995, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 355-70.

Social Security System – An Appraisal” in: Islamic Law of Trade and

SOMOGYI,   J.   DE.,  “Economic   Fundamentals   in   Classical   Arabic Literature”, Studies in Islam, New Delhi, July 1966, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 115-18.

SOMOGYI,   J.DE,   “State   Intervention   in   Trade   in   Classical   Arabic Literature”, Studies in Islam, New Delhi, July 1967, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 61-4.

SOMOGYI,  J.  DE.,  “Economic  Theory  in  Classical  Arabic  Literature”, Studies in Islam, New Delhi, Jan. 1965, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-6.

SOMOGYI,  J.DE,  “Trade  in  Classical  Arabic  Literature”,  The  Muslim World,  April 1965, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 131-4.

SPENGLER,  J.J.,  “al  Beruni:  Eleventh  Century  Iranian  Malthusian?”, History of Political Economy, Vol. 3, No. 1, Durham (USA): Spring 1971, pp. 92-104.

STEPHAN, Statements. H., “An Endowment Deed of Khasseki Sultan Dated the 24th May 1552”, Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine, 10 (1944), pp. 175-94 and Plates XXXVI-XI.

STEWART, GLENN M. Exploring and Indentifying Structuring Techniques to Create Products that Comply with Shari’ah Rules on Acceptable Investment, 21 pp. Unpublished. Presented to World Islamic Banking, Finance and Investments Summit organized by IBC Asia Ltd. at Kuala Lumpur during 23-24 September 1996. Summary: Gives an overview of the primary sources of Islamic economics and how they can be used to develop suitable financial instruments (Muhammad Akram Khan).

STILLMAN, Norman "Waqf and the Ideology of Charity in Medieval Islam" in Hunter of the East. Studies in Honour of Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Vol. 1, ed. Ian R. Netton (Brill Academic Publishers: Leiden, 2000), pp. 357-372.

SUBAIR, KOLA, " Economic Revival and Management in Nigeria: An Islamic Economic Model", Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XXIV:1), Jan 01, pp.73-83. Summary: Capitalism and socialism have failed to provide precise solutions to the Nigerian economic predicaments. This inevitably necessitates call for the third order option: Islamic economic system. The Islamic system emphasizes justice among other things. The Islamic model promises to solve the economic problems of Nigeria (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SUBTELNY, Maria Eva, "A Timurid Educational and Charitable Foundation: The Ikhlasiya complex of `Ali Shir Nava'i in 15th. Century Herat and its Endowment," Journal of American Oriental Studies, 1991, Vol. 3, pp. 38-61.

SUBTELNY, Maria Eva. Review of McCHESNEY, R.D., Waqf in Central Asia: Four Hundred Years in the History of a Muslim Shrine, 1480-1889 49 Journal of Near Eastern Studies, January 1996, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 49-51.

Suharto, Ugi (2001), “Zakat as a Special Institution of Public Finance: Reflections from Kitab al-Amwal of Abu Ubaid (d. 838 AD)”, al-Shajarah (Kuala Lumpur), Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 55-88.

SUHRAWARDY, A, al-Mamun. "The Wakf of Moveables”, Journal Proceeding of Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta, India), 1911, Vol. 7, pp. 323-340

SULAIMAN, IBRAHIM, "Economic Philosophy and Principles of Sokoto Caliphate", in R.I. Molla, et.el. (eds.), Frontiers and Mechanics of Islamic Economics, 1988, Skoto: University of Skoto. Summary: Based on writings of Shehu Uthman, Shehu Abdullahi,and Muhammadu Bello, describes the role of government and basic principles of public finance. The caliphate tried to implement the classical version of the early Islam and restricted its sources of income to only those taxes which were explicitly sanctioned by the Shari’ah (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Suleman, R. M. U. (1980), “Distribution Aspects of Zakat” in: Economic System of Islam, Proceeding of a Seminar Organized by the National Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, Economic Research and Statistics Wing, National Bank of Pakistan, pp. 321-327.

Supreme Court of Pakistan Shari’ah Appellate Tribunal Judgment on Riba, Lahore: PLD Publishers, 2000, 557 pp. Summary: Judgment of the Shari’ah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan decreed on 23 December 1999. The judgment was on a number of appeals lying with the Supreme Court of Pakistan against the Federal Shari’ah Court Judgment of November 1991 that had declared all types of interest as riba. The present judgment upheld the FSC judgment and ordered the Government of Pakistan to take a number of measures including new legislation and setting up of a Commission for Islamization of the Financial S ystem by June 2001 (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SUWAILEM, SAMI AL-, "Review of Hussein Kotby's 'Financial Engineering for Islamic Banks,'” Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (8), 1996, pp. 65-73. Summary: Reviews Kotby's book. Concludes that Kotby's position on the permissibility of forward and futures is doubtful from Islamic point of view. Also considers that the options trading is not permissible from the Islamic point of view (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SUWAILEM, SAMI al-, "Venture Capital: A Potential for Musharaka," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (10), 1998, pp.3-21. Summary: Venture capital is a form of active investment through equity-based instruments. Capital financing is praised for its role in promoting growth while maintaining financial stability. From an Islamic point of view, such arrangements appear very close to the mode of musharaka which the Islamic banks are seeking, but many in reality failed to adopt. Venture capital is also well-suited to Islamic countries because of its positive impact on growth and development (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SUWAILEM, SAMI al-, To ward an Objective Measure of Gharar in Exchange, 35 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in the 21st Century organized by the IIU, Malaysia during 9-12 August 1999 at Kuala Lumpur. Summary: Develops an objective criterion for identifying and measuring gharar in exchange. Shows that a gharar transaction is a zero-sum game with uncertain payoffs. The formulation is based on basic axioms of expected utility theory and game theory, and is consistent with Shari’ah rules and maxims. The measure helps economists view gharar as an integrated theory of risk, so that it can be easily communicated with non-Muslim economists. Some of conclusions are: forward trading and options trading are not allowed in Islam. Similar, insurance contracts involve gharar. Thinks revenue sharing is better than profit-sharing. Thinks riba is prohibited as it involves gharar (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SUWAILEM, SAMI, AL-, "Towards an Objective Measure of Gharar," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (7:1&2), Oct 1999-April 2000, pp. 61-102. Summary: Develops a framework for analyzing gharar based on economic aspects of game. The framework is consistent with Shari’ah maxims as well as individual gharar transactions widely studies in classical fiqh resources. In addition, the framework brings insights into explaining different fiqhi positions on controversial gharar contracts. When extended to contemporary practices, the measure helps in understanding logic of instrument design, where violation of Islamic rules exactly lies.  Argues  that  the  modern contracts  of insurance, forward trading, options sale are not in conformity with Islamic law. However, supports bai' al-arbun and revenue sharing rather profit-sharing in bank financing. The Islamic law on gharar leads to a more stable and consistent economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

SYEDAIN,  H.,  “Counting  on  the  Qur’an  (Islamic  System  of  Finance)”, Management Today, March 1989, pp. 104-109.

 

 

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TABATABA’I, Kharaj in Islamic Law, London: Anchor Press Ltd., 1983.

Tabung Haji As An Islamic Financial Institution, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1995, 41pp. Summary: A general introduction to the evolution, organization and operation of Tabung Haji -the Malaysian institution for collecting savings and facilitating the hajj (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TADAYOSHI, Kikucho, “Two Working Hypotheses of the Waqf Institution” in the Urbanism in Islam, Tokyo, 1994, pp. 251-254.

Tag-el-Din, Saifeddin, (1995), “Allocative and Stabilizing Functions of Zakat in an Islamic Economy”, in: Gulaid, Mahamoud A. and Abdullah, Mohamed Aden (eds.), Readings in Public Finance in Islam, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 327-56, First Published in (1986) Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Vol. 3, No. 4, October-December, pp. 43-48.

Tahir,  Sayyid;  ‘Financing  of  Government  Budgetary  Deficit  in  the light of Shariah Principles’, IIIE, Islamabad.

TAHIR, SAYYID, "Distribution in Islam", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, pp. 425-436. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Discusses distribution of wealth and income. The market mechanism creates some form of income and wealth distribution. However, this distribution alone is not sufficient to create equity based on justice, efficiency or basic needs. Therefore, two schemes of redistribution are required. These two schemes are introduced by the socio-legal framework of the Islamic economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TAHIR, SAYYID, "Islamic Perspectives on Economic Development", The Pakistan Development Review, Islamabad, (34;4), Winter 1995, pp. 845-856. Summary: Section one presents existing views of the conventional and Islamic economists about economic development. Re-states the Islamic concept of development in section two. Section three defines the role of government in an Islamic economy. Derives policy implications in section four (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TAHIR, SAYYID, "Macroeconomics Theorizing from Islamic Perspective", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol. 2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, pp. 301-310. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Argues that the Islamic writers have attempted to formulate macroeconomic models on basis of famous IS-LM model with two variations: elimination of interest and introduction of zakah. Calls for clear and explicit identification of variables and presentation as well as definition of assumptions (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TAHIR, SAYYID, "Strategy for the Elimination of Riba Error! Bookmark not defined. With Special Reference to Existing Debts", Qur'anic Horizons, Lahore, (2:3), July 97, pp. 70-95. Summary: Argues that the strategy for eliminating riba from the economy should be instantaneous and not gradual. Gradualism is against the Shari’ah. For foreign debts, the lenders should be taken into confidence for some sort of settlement. For domestic debts, proposes a number of drastic measures to eliminate riba conclusively from the economy (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TAHIR, SAYYID, et.el., IIIE's Blueprint of Islamic Financial System , Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Economics, 1999, 148 pp. Summary: A comprehensive report on the Islamic financial system. Covers Islamic banking, government transactions, central banking, money market, and legal aspects of the Islamic financial system.  Propose a number of new Islamic financial instruments. Introduces an innovative definition of riba. Consider difference between cash and credit prices as legitimate. Also, allow discounting bills of exchange and forward trading of foreign exchange. Make a comprehensive statement for practical implementation of the system. Propose a time frame-frame but do not agree with gradualism (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TAHIR, SAYYID, Readings in Microeconomics: An Islamic Perspective, Kuala Lumpur: Longman Malaysia, 1992, 298 pp. Summary: A collection of 22 published papers on various aspects of microeconomics. The individual chapters have been annotated in the first three volumes of the present bibliography (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Taib, Nasseri, (1988), ‘Zakat’, in: Islam and Eradication of Poverty: An Ethical Dimension of Development with Special Reference to Malaysia Five Year Plans, Philadelphia (USA), Temple University, Ph.D. Thesis.

TALL,, SUFIAN, el-, "Religious Teachings on the Protection of Earth's Resources: A Muslim Point of View”   in Religion and the Use of Earth’s Resources, Rome: Pontifical Council on Interreligious Dialogue, Vatican, 1996, pp. 95-118. Summary: A comprehensive discussion on Islam's attitude toward preservation of earth's resources. Shows how the contemporary development strategy has devastated the environment. Pleads for an ethical approach toward   development (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Tanzilur-Rahman, (n.d.), Introduction of Zakah in Pakistan, Islamabad: Council of Islamic Ideology, 85 p.

Tariqullah  Khan  &  Habib  Ahmed  (2001):  Risk  Management:  An Analysis  of  Issues  in  Islamic  Financial  Industry,  Occasional  Paper No.5, IRTI, IDB, Jeddah.

TASIN, MUHAMMAD, "Aik Ahm Iqtisadi Mas'ala aur us ka hall" (Urdu) (An Important Economic Problem and Its Solution) Hikmat e Qur'an, Lahore, (16:4), April 1997, pp. 46-51, 54. Summary: Clarifies his earlier contention about indexation of loans. Insists that indexation of loans will not be riba (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TAWFIQ, M. Amin, 'Development of Awqaf System in Egypt”, Majallah Al Azhar, (Cairo, Egypt), 1975, Vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 11-16.

TAWFIQ, M. Amin, 'The Awqaf in Modern Egypt', The Islamic Quarterly (London), 1998, Vol. LII, No. 4, pp. 257-265.

Thanaa-ullah, Qazi (1985), “The Book of Zakat”, in: the Essential Hanafi Handbook of Fiqh (Ma La Budda Minhu translated by Yusuf Talal Ali al-Amriki) Lahore: Kazi Publications, pp.123-34.

THANI, MUHAMMAD, "Islami Nazm e Ma'eeshat aur Kafalat 'Aama men Zakat ki Ahmiyat' (Urdu) [Importance of Zakah in Public Maintenance] Fikro Nazar, Islamabad, (38:3), April 2001, pp.21-49. Summary: comprehensive essay on the role of zakah in public maintenance and alleviation of poverty (Muhammad Akram Khan).

The   Council   of   the   Islamic   Fiqh   Academy,   ‘Resolutions   and Recommendations’     (1985-2000),    Islamic    Research    &    Training Institute (IRTI), IDB, Jeddah, 2000.

The Council of Islamic Ideology, Government of Pakistan; ‘Report on Elimination of Interest from the Economy’, June 1980.

Their Collection", in: el-Ashker and Sirajul Haq (eds.), Institutional Zakah, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 65-102.

THOMAS,  RICHARD,  "Ijara  Leasing  Contract  as  a  Shariah-Compliant Investment", New Horizon, London, (108), April 2001, pp. 3-5. Summary: Gives a general review of leasing industry in USA. Explains how Islamic Asset Management Limited (IAM) is conducting its leasing business in compliance with the Shari’ah (Muhammad Akram Khan).

THOMAS, ABDULKADER S., What is Permissible Now? Singapore: Muslim Converts' Association, 1995, 119 pp. Summary: Focuses on the concepts and underlying issues of Islamic economic system, especially in countries with Muslim minorities. That the work is of contemporary relevance is evident from its treatment of such current issues as riba, insurance, waqf management and financial management in general (Muhammad Akram Khan).

THOMAS, ABDULKADER, “The Islamic Perspective: Making Your Money Work”, NewHorizon, London, (100), July 2000, pp.10-11. Summary: Presents a view of current market of Islamic financial products. Stretches it to coming years and proposes market strategies that would work (Muhammad Akram Khan).

THOMAS, RICHARD, "London Interbank Offered Rate and Murabaha – Strange Bedfellows?"  Islamic Banker, London, Oct. 1995, pp. 1-3. Summary: Argues that in absence of any other benchmark , Islamic banks can use LIBOR as an acceptable benchmark for their transactions in murabaha (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TIBAWI, A.L., The Islamic Pious foundations in Jerusalem: Origins, History, and Usurpation by Israel, London, The Islamic Cultural Centre, 1978, 54+9 p.

TORREY CHARLES C., The Commercial-Theological Terms in The Koran, Leiden: E.J. Bill, 1892, 51 p.

TOUTOUNCHIAN, IRAJ, "The Role of Central banks in Islamic Banking", New Horizon, London, (120), June 20002, pp. 8-13. Summary: With the elimination of interest the central banks would play the following role: (1) Active participation in the preparation of development plan; (2)Set priorities of investment for islamic banks; (3) Set profit-sharing ratios; (4) Determine risks for different sectors; (5) Inspect Islamic banks; (5) Gradually reduce the statutory reserve ratio to zero (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Tug, Salih, (1976), “The Centralization of the Zakah and Individual Freedom”, Presented at the International Conference on Islamic Economics, Makkah, (mimeo).

TUMA, ELIAS, “Early Arab Economic Policies” Ist/7th/10th Centuries”, Islamic Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1965, pp. 1-23.

TUREN, SEREF, "Performance and Risk Analysis of the Islamic Banks: The Case of Bahrain Islamic Bank", Journal King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, Jeddah, (7), 1995, pp. 3-14. Summary: Investigates quantitatively and at micro-level the claim that Islamic banking offers high performance and stability. Uses Islamic Bank of Bahrain as a case study. Applies financial ratio analysis, stock analysis and co-efficient of variation analysis. The results of investigation can be used as a partial but quantitative explanation to the arguments whether the profit sharing concept of Islamic banking can achieve a higher profitability and lower risk than conventional commercial banks (Muhammad Akram Khan).

TURKI, MUSTAFA M., "Islamic Banking: A Systems Perspective", New Horizon, London, (62), April 1997, pp.3-5. Summary: Emphasizes the need for the introduction of computerized systems in Islamic banks. For Islamic bankers. Based on the experience of the author. Undocumented (Muhammad Akram Khan).

 

 

U

UDOVITCH,  A.L.,  “Commercial  Techniques  in  Early  Medieval Islamic Trade” in Richards, D.S. (ed.), Islam and Trade of Asia, Oxford, 1970, p. 37-62.

UDOVITCH, A.L., “Economic Concepts of Ibn Taimiyah by  Abdul Azim Islahi” (Review Article), Middle-East Journal, 1990, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 522-523.  

UDOVITCH, A.L., “Labour Partnership in Early lslamic Law”, Journal of' Economic and Social History of the Orient, Leiden: 1967, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 64-80.

UDOVITCH, A.L., “Partnership and Profit in Medieval Islam”, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1970, 180 p.

UDOVITCH.  A.L..  “At  the  Origin  of  Western  Cornmenda: Islam Israel, Byzentium?” Speculam, Vol. 37. pp. 198-207.

UGUREL, ILHAN, "Co-operation in the Area of Statistics Among the OIC Countries," Journal of Economic Cooperation Among Islamic Countries, Ankara, (17:1-2), Jan. 1996, pp. 41-60. Summary: Stresses the importance of statistics as a branch of knowledge. Gives an account of the progress made by the SESRTCIC in its efforts to enhance co-operation in statistics among the OIC member countries (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UMAR, ABDULLAH, Malik’s Concept of Amal, Ph.D. Thesis,   University of Chicago, 1978. 

Umar, Halim (1995); ‘Shariah, Economic and Accounting Framework of Bai‘ ’ Al-Salam ’ IRTI, IDB, Research Paper No. 33.

UMAR, M. ABDUL HALIM, Shari’ah, Economic and Accounting Framework of Bai' Salam in the Light of Contemporary Application, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, 128 pp. (Translated from Arabic by Mahmoud A. Mahdi.) Summary: Explain the law of bai' al-salam and its economic implications as a financing technique. Gives comparative view of the four juridical, schools on each issue.  The  last  chapter explains the accounting entries in the books of the financier in relation to bai' salam (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Usmani,  Muhammad  Imran  (April,  2000), “Shirkat Wa  Mudarabat: ‘Asr-e-Hazar Mein’, Idaratul” Ma’araf, Karachi.

Usmani,  Muhammad  Taqi,  (a)  ‘Introduction  to  Islamic  Finance’, Idaratul Ma’arif, Karachi May 2000;  (b)  ‘Islam Wa Jadeed Maeeshat Wa   Tijarat’,  Idaratul  Ma’arif,  Karachi  March  1999;   (c)  ‘Fiqhi Maqalat’, Vol.1, Memon Islamic Publishers, Karachi, 1994.

UTHMAN, M. ZAINY, Islamic Worldview and Development: An Assessment of Myrdal's Modernization Ideals from an Islamic Perspective, 1998, 22 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the First International Conference on Islamic Development Management organized by the Universiti Sains Malaysia during 8-10 December 1998. Summary: Attempts to evaluate modernization ideals along with the ethical and noble value standards which Islam has revealed. Observes that planning of any development program should not break any of the established ethical standards and values expounded by Islam. It should, rather, encourage them in order to bring about a truly emancipated man (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMAN, USAMAH A., "An In-Kind Tax on Agricultural Products, Agricultural Land and Livestock: A Preliminary Study in the Comparative Economics of Taxation", Review of Islamic Economics, Leicester, (4:2), 1997, pp. 13-40. Summary: Provides a preliminary demonstration of salient features of zakah mainly as an in-kind tax. Draws attention to certain optimal properties of zakah on agricultural products, agricultural land and livestock. Starting from a fundamental juristic background, the paper addresses the relevant issues of tax incidence and welfare cost for zakah in comparison with property tax, payroll tax and profit tax. Also examines impact on government revenues as well as some elements of a good tax, involving comparison with Western experience (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMAN, USAMAH A., "Money, Interest and Alternative Macroeconomic System", International Islamic University Malaysia Journal of Economics and Management, (9:1), 2001, pp.101-114. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in the 21st Century organized by the IIUM, Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August, 1999. Summary: Discusses the nature of money and how does the introduction of interest-based system disturbs the essential function of money and causes economic instability. Asserts that a profit-loss sharing system leads to higher level of investment and consumption and thus provides for greater economic stability. The interest-free central bank shall auction money supply on the basis of profit sharing with competing banks. The sovereign profit share replaces the discount rate in regulating money supply. Some alternative forms of re-discounting and open market operations are suggested (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMANI, M. TAQI, "Futures, Options, Swaps, and Equity Investment," in Asma Siddiqi (ed.), Anthology of Islamic Banking,  London: Islamic Institute of Banking and Insurance, 2000, pp. 490-493. Summary: Argues that the sales contract involving forward or future sales, options contracts and swaps are unlawful. The investment should be based on equity and dividend should be based on actual results of the business. Predetermined rate of dividend is unlawful (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMANI, M. TAQI, "Methods of House Building Financing According to Shari’ah", in Mahdi, Mahmoud Ahmad(ed.), Islamic Banking Modes for Building Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995, pp.61-73. Summary: Presented to a workshop on housing finance held at Khartoum during 27-29 October 1991 by Islamic Research and Training Institute, and the Sudanese Estate Bank. Explains how various modes of Islamic finance can be used for house building. Discusses the question of pledge in great detail and also how various segments of the contract should be handled from a legal perspective (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMANI, M. TAQI, The Historic Judgment on InterestError! Bookmark not defined. Delivered in the Supreme Court if Pakistan, Karachi: Idartul-Ma'arif, 2000,247 pp. Summary: It is part of the judgment of the Supreme Court of Pakistan delivered on 23rd December 1999 on appeal of the Federation of Pakistan against the Federal Shari’ah Court Judgment of 1991 on the question of riba. This part was written by the author, being judge of the Supreme Court Shari’ah Appellate Bench. Deals with the whole question of riba, its legal, economic and financial aspects and declares that all forms of interest are riba. Discusses various related issues and refutes all arguments offered for the legitimization of interest (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMANI, M.TAQI, "Effective Policies, Moral Values: Pre-Requisites for Islamic Banking, New Horizon, London, (60), Feb.1997, pp.8-9. Summary: An interview of the author. Compares Islamic banking in Pakistan and Malaysia and makes proposals for remedying the situation in Pakistan (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTHMANI, M.TAQI, "How Far are Financial Contracts Permissible  Islamically?" Hamdard Islamicus, Karachi, (XX: 2), April 1997, pp.91-93. Summary: Gives juridical opinion on various forms of financial contracts such as sale and purchase of company shares, swaps, options, futures and direct investment in equities (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UTYABAY-KERIMI, “The Situation of Waqfs in the Ural-Ulga Region (Russia), in Asfahani, Mustafa, M. (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf fi’l Alam al Islami, Qum (Iran), 2002, Vol. 55, pp. 249-251.

UZAIR, MOHAMMAD, "Some Implications of Non-interest Based System", Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance, Karachi, (15:2), April 1998, pp. 18-24. Summary: Points out changes required in monetary and fiscal policies due to abolition of interest. The central banks will need to adopt profit-loss sharing as a tool to adjust credit supply. For substituting interest on treasury bills, the central bank can use opportunity cost of banks on inter-bank call money. Alternatively, such bills can be issued against the administrative cost of the banks only. Similarly, for public debt, the government can offer average profit on public enterprises or average profit on corporate sector during the preceding year. For widows, orphans and pensioners who like to have risk-free investments, various mutual funds can be established where investment in carefully selected equities can be a good substitute of interest (Muhammad Akram Khan).

UZAIR, MOHAMMAD, Interest-free Banking, Karachi: Royal Book Company, 2001, 222 pp. Summary: A collection of thirteen papers of the author on various aspects of interest-free banking. Also includes author's earliest paper "interest-less banking" written in 1955 (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Uzair, Muhammad (1978, 2001): ‘Interest Free Banking, Royal Book Company, Karachi’.

 

 

 

V

Vogel, E. Frank & Samuel L. Hayes, III; Islamic Law and Finance: Religion, Risk and Return; Arab & Islamic Law Series; Kluwer Law International, The Hague, Netherlands, 1998.

VOGEL, FRANK E., Islamic Law and Finance: Religion, Risk and Return, London: Kluwer Law International, 1998, 330 pp. Summary: Part one covers Islamic law of finance and has five chapters: Islamic finance as an application of Islamic law; Qur‟an and Sunnah on contract and commerce; Islamic law of usury; Islamic law of contract; Islamic law of financial institutions and instruments. Part two has three chapters: Islamic financial instruments; opportunity rates and Islamic capital; derivatives in Islamic finance. The first part is legal while the second part is analytical. Part three deals with case studies of Islamic financial innovations (Muhammad Akram Khan).

VOGEL, FRANK E., Islamic Lawand Finance: Religion, Risk and Return, The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998, 330 pp. Summary: Discusses the law of Islamic finance as in the primary sources and as practiced by the Islamic financial institutions. The subjects covered are riba, law of contract, mudaraba, murabaha, musharaka, ijara, salam, and istisna'. Applies the theory of modern finance to the Islamic law. Highlights the problems that the Islamic law has yet to resolve if it has to provide a well-functioning basis for Islamic financial institutions in the present day world. Of special significance are problems relating to forwards, futures, options, swaps and various  derivatives.  Make  highly  valuable  suggestions  for  innovative  financial re-engineering (Muhammad Akram Khan).

 

W

WAHEED, ATIF, "Pakistan men Insidad e Sud ki Koshashon ki Tarikh" (Urdu) (History of the Efforts for Abolishing Interest in Pakistan) Meethaq, Lahore, (46:4), April'97, pp. 47-58. Summary: Summarizes efforts made in Pakistan for abolishing interest from the economy. Makes suggestions regarding a suitable strategy to abolish interest (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WAMY (1980), Comment on the proposed 'Draft Zakat Act' of Islamic Economics Research Bureau Dacca, 1997, in: Thought on Islamic Economics, Dacca: Islamic Economics Research Bureau, pp.127-31.

WATSON,   A.M.,   Agricultural   Innovation   in   Early   Islamic   World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

WICKENS, G.M., “Al Jarsifi on Hisba, Islamic Quarterly, 1956, Vol.  3, pp. 176-187.

WILLIAMS, John Alden. "The Khanqah of Siryaqus: A Mamluk Royal Religious Foundation" in Green, A. H. (ed.), Quest of an Islamic Humanism: Arabic and Islamic Studies in Memory of Mohamed al- Nowaihi ,. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1984. 109-122.

Wilson, Charles (1979), “An Infinite Horizon Model with Money” , in Jerry R. Green and Jose Alexandre Scheinkman (eds), General Equilibrium, Growth and Trade,  New York, Academic Press, pp.81-104.

Wilson, Rodney (1997), “Zakat”, in: Islamic Finance, London: Pearson Professional Limited, pp. 95-97.

WILSON, RODNEY, "Business Ethics: Western and Islamic Perspective", in Khaliq Ahmad and AHM Sadeq (eds.), Ethics in Business and Management, London: Asean Press, 2001, pp.135-167. Summary: Discusses ethical issues in practice, rather than the ethical system of Islam per se. The Muslim behavior in business involves loyalty to employer, lack of cut-throat competition, employer-employee relationship, need-based compensation system and work ethics (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WILSON, RODNEY, "Islamic Investment Products in the UK", New Horizon, London, (107), March 2001, 3-5 pp. Summary: Discusses the state of Islamic investment products. A brief description of the role of HSBC in the UK is followed by discussion of manzil scheme of United Bank of Kuwait. There is brief description of various Islamic investment funds based in the UK (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WILSON, RODNEY, "Markets without Capitalism: An Islamic Economic System?" NewHorizon, London, (82), Dec 1998, pp. 6-9. Summary: It is possible to have markets without having capitalism. It is possible to conceive a market mechanism not embedded in the value system of capitalism. This could also be within the ethical system of Islam. The task before the Muslims should be to identify those conditions of market operations that conform to their ethical system and their concept of social justice. They need not invent a new economic system or even a new science of economics (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WILSON, RODNEY, "Parallel between Islamic and Ethical Banking," New Horizon, London, (105), Dec 200 and Jan 2001, pp. 10-13,17. Summary: Compares ethical banking with Islamic banking and draws several parallels. Cites the case of Cooperative Bank of UK as an example of ethical bank. Suggests improvements in dissemination of information, marketing and governance of Islamic banks (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WILSON, RODNEY, Challenges and Opportunities for Islamic Banking and Finance in the West: The UK Experience," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (7:1&2) Oct 1999-April 2000, pp.35-60. Summary: Islamic finance has become increasingly significant in financial centers in the West, notably in London, despite regulatory hurdles. It reflects demand from Muslim residents and non-resident clients for Islamic deposit facilities and fund management services which involves Shari’ah compliance. At the same time Islamic financing methods are viewed as a challenge and opportunity by industry. In client driven societies there is a willingness by those in financial services to listen and learn from the experience of Islamic banks, which in the longer run may bring a major breakthrough for Islamic banking at the retail level in the West (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WILSON, RODNEY, Economics, Ethics and Religion: Jewish, Christian and Muslim Economic Thought, London: Macmillan Press, 1997, 234 pp. Summary: Discusses relationship of ethics and economics. Introduces the Jewish, Christian and Islamic economic thought on the basis of primary sources of these religions. The last chapter discusses the subject of business ethics as understood in the contemporary academic world and also as prescribed by these religions. A thought provoking and original work. For researchers and economists. Gives a detailed bibliography. Based on primary and secondary sources. Documented (Muhammad Akram Khan).

WILSON, RODNEY, Islamic Fund Management, 19 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the International Conference on Islamic Economics in 21st Century organized by the International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur during 9-12 August, 1999. Summary: Based on practical experience of fund management in Jeddah and London, discusses the fund management in the Shari’ah framework. There are two approaches to fund management: (i) how to screen equity investments in stock markets throughout the world to identify companies which are potentially acceptable to Islamic investors; (ii) stresses the importance of investing in emerging stock markets of Muslim countries, even where companies themselves are not necessarily specifically run in accordance with the Shari’ah. In both cases, a degree of compromise and pragmatism is involved as none represents an ideal Islamic solution. The paper reviews both approaches in the light of experience in Europe and Gulf (Muhammad Akram Khan).

World and the Future Economic Order, London: Islamic Council of

WORLD Waqf Foundation, Regulations of the World Waqf Foundation, Jeddah, IDB, 2002, 9 p.

WRIGHT JR., J. W. ,"Muslim Attitudes Toward Islamic Finance: A Review Lecture and an American Survey", in Ehsan Ahmed (ed.), Role of Private and Public sectors in Economic development in an Islamic Perspective, Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1996, pp.123-134. Summary: Postulates that the Islamic banks can fill the gap of Islamic finance but that American Muslims' attitudes toward Islamic finance must be favorable for these ventures (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Wright, M. S. Dudley, (1947), “The Fourth Pillar of Islam – Charity”, The Islamic Review (London), Vol. 35, Nos. 4 and 5, April-May, pp. 137-145.

 

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Y

Yahya, A. F. M. (1988), "Problems and Difficulties in Zakat Administration" in: Salahuddin Ahmad (ed.), Zakat and Ushr – Socio – Econo – Administrative Implications, Dhaka, Islamic Economic Research Bureau, pp. 38-42.

YAHYA, HUSNI A. A., "The Experience of the Jordan Islamic Bank in Financing Housing Projects", in Mahdi, Mahmoud Ahmad (ed.), Islamic Banking Modes for Building Financing, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1995,  pp.77-117. Summary: Presented to a workshop on housing finance held at Khartoum during 27-29 October 1991 by Islamic Research and Training Institute and the Sudanese Estate Bank. Based on data for 1987-1990, explains the housing finance operations of the bank. Attaches various forms for agreements to illustrate the nature of contracts with the customers (Muhammad Akram Khan).

YAQUBY, NIZAM S., "Shari’ah Requirements for Conventional Banks Engaged in Islamic Finance", New Horizon, London, (119), July 2001, pp. 8-10. Summary: Discusses the requirements that a conventional bank must fulfill if it wants to start Islamic banking. The requirements are: complete segregation of funds; existence of a Shari’ah supervisory board; management committed to Islamic financial concepts; safeguarding of Muslim investors' funds from negligence, trespass and fraud; and compliance with AAOIFI standards of accounting and auditing (Muhammad Akram Khan).

YAZBAK, Mahmud, "The Waqf as a Tool for Enrichment / Impoverishment: Nablus 1650-1700," in Jean-Paul Pascual and Randi Deguilhem, Poverty and Richness in the Mediterranean Muslim World, Institut de Recherches et dEtudes sur le Monde Arab et Musulman (Aix-en-Provence / France).

YEDIYILDIZ, Bahaeddin. Place of the Waqf in Turkish Cultural System (English translation by R. Acun and M. Oz) Omer Hilmi, Ithafu'l-ahlaf fi ahkami'l-evkaf, Istanbul, 1307, p.15.

YILDIRIM, Onur , “Pious Foundations in the Byzantine and Seljuk States: A Comparative Study of Philanthropy in the Mediterranean World during the Late Medieval Era,” in Rivista Degli Studi Orientali, Vol. LXXIII, Fasc. 1-4, 1999, pp. 27-52.

YIP, JOHN, "Mobilizing Islamic Finance for Infrastructure," Islamic Banker, London, (25), Feb.1998, pp. 14-17. Summary: Describes the mechanism of Islamic financial instruments relevant for mobilizing finances for infrastructure projects. The instruments mentioned are Islamic Debt Securities (IDS) under mudaraba, musharaka, istisna' , 'ijara, and qard hasan. Explains the mechanics with the help of diagrams (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Younis, M. Abdul Moneim, (1968), “Zakat al-Fitr”, Majallatu'l-Azhar (al-Azhar Magazine), Vol. 40, No. 8, Dec., pp. 13-16.

YUSOF, M. FADZLI, "An Overview of the Takaful Industry", New Horizon, London, (107), March 2001, pp. 9-11. Summary: Starting from a review in Malaysia moves on to a global review of takaful industry. Identifies main issues as: adequate capital, trained manpower, re -takaful, investment of takaful funds, harmonization of practice and legislative support (Muhammad Akram Khan).

YUSOOF, Moulvi Mohammad, Review of the Mohammadan Law of the Wakf, Calcutta, Baptist Mission Press, 1906, p. 112.

Yusuf  Ali,  English Translation of the Holy Qur’an, edited by IIIT, USA, Amana Corporation; 1989.

YUSUF, S.M., “Abu Dharr, al Ghifari” in Studies in Islamic History and Culture, Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1970, pp. 169-190.

YUZO, Nagata, “The Role of Waqf Foundation in the Social Economic History of Ottoman” in Urbanism in Islam, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Urbanism in Islam, Tokyo, 1994, pp. 255- 264.

 

 

 

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ZAFARUL  ISLAM,  Socio-Economic  Dimension  of  Fiqh  Literature  in Medieval India, Lahore: Dyal Singh Trust Library, 1990, 150 p.

ZAFARUL ISLAM, “Nature of Landed Property in Mughal India: Views of Two Contemporary Scholars (Shaikh Jalaluddin Thanesary and Qadi Muhammad Ali Thanawi)”, Islamic Culture, Oct.-Dec. 1987, Vol. LXI, No. 4, pp. 46-62.

Zafarul-Islam, (1990), “Zakat and Its Connotation in Medieval India” in: Socio Economic Dimension of Fiqh Literature in Medieval India, Lahore: Dyal Singh Trust Library, pp. 111-131.

ZAFARUL-Islam, Review on “Waqf in India: A Study of Administrative and Statutory Control”, Journal of Objective Studies, 1990, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 195-201.

ZAID, OMAR ABDULLAH, "Accounting Books and Reports in the   Islamic," in Proceedings of International Conference 1 On the theme of Accounting, Commerce and Finance : The Islamic Perspective. Organized by the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur during 18-20 February 1997, pp. 84-97. Summary: Traces the history of some accounting practices in early Muslim period. Concludes that because  of  commercial  practices  and  because  of  zakah,  the  Muslim  were  quite well-versed in accounting. With passage of time they developed this discipline. Mentions several accounting records, books and statements used by the Muslims. Speculates that the Italian writer Pacioli, known to be originator of double entry book -keeping might have borrowed this concept from the Muslims (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZAID, OMAR ABDULLAH, Development and Challenges of Islamic Banking and Investment and Its Opportunities An Australian Experience, 6 pp. Unpublished. Presented to the World Islamic Banking and Investment Summit organized by IBC Asia Ltd. at Kuala Lumpur during 23-24, September 1996. Summary: A brief introduction to Muslim Community Cooperative Australia an organization involved in Islamic housing finance on a voluntary basis (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Zaidi,  Iqbal  and  Abbas  Mirakhor;  ‘Stabilization  and  Growth  in  an Open Islamic Economy’, Review of Islamic Economics, Vol. 1 No. 2, 1991,  Pp. 1-20.

Zaidi,  Nawazish  Ali  (1987);  ‘Eliminating  Interest  from  Banks  in Pakistan’, Royal Book Company, Karachi.

Zaim, Sabahuddin, (1989), “Recent Interpretations on Economic Aspect of Zakah” in: Imtiazi, I. A., et al., Management of Zakah in Modern Muslim Society, Jeddah, IRTI/IDB, pp. 101-120.

ZAINALABIDIN, TAYYIB, "Institution of Zakah and the Muslim World", in Mohibulhaq  Sahibzada (ed.), Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan, Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 1997, pp. 287-322. Summary: A comprehensive paper on zakah collected and disbursed in various Muslim countries. Analyses the impact of zakah distribution in various countries in alleviating poverty. Concludes that inter-country transfers are a must to help some of the extremely poor countries as local zakah of these countries cannot suffice (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Zakah and Ushr Ordinance, (1980), Government of Pakistan Ordinance No. XVIII of 1980, dated 20-06-1980, and Zakah and Ushr (Amendment) Ordinance, 1980, Ordinance No. LII of 1980, dated 29-10-1980).

Zakah, American Trust Publications, pp. 173-178. Also in: Outlines of

Zakat: Islamic System of Social Justice, Hyderabad, Mustafa Educational Network Trust, 61 pp.

Zaman, Arshad and Asad Zaman,  ‘Interest & Modern Economy’, in ‘Islamic Economic Studies’; Vol.8 No.2 pp. 61 – 74, April, 2001.

ZAMAN, ARSHAD, "Interest and the Modern Economy", Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (8:2), April 2001, pp.61-74. Summary: With reference to the debate on elimination of interest from the economy of Pakistan, argue that it would not cause any economic disruption in the economy. The business community prefers to rely on equity. The savings, investment and distribution of income and wealth would improve. Government would be able to finance its activities on the basis of interest-free alternatives (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZAMAN, M. RAQUIBUZ, Some Administrative Aspects of the Collection and Distribution  of Zakah and the Distributive Effects of the Zakah in Modern Economies, Jeddah: Centre for Research on Islamic Economics, 1987, 73 pp. Summary: There is a need to reconsider the coverage of zakah and levels of wealth that oblige the owner to pay zakah with a view to ensuring equity among zakah payers. The author suggests an administrative setup for collecting and distributi ng zakah which is low cost, and simple and allows a major role in zakah administration to local communities. Finally, the author presents simulated results of the distributive effects of zakah for two economies one very poor and the other relatively rich extracting his data from published sources. This shows a way to planners and policy makers in the Muslim countries (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZARINEBAF-SHAHR, Farida, “The Ottomam Administration of Shi’I Waqfs in Azebaijan”, in Asfahani, M.M. (ed.), Kunuz al Waqf…, Qum, 2002, Vol.59, pp.233-236. BSS, Report on Census of Waqf Estates 1986, Dhaka: BSS, 1987, 81 p.

ZARQA, ANAS, "Project Evaluation and Time Value Discounting", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol.2, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank , 1998, pp. 541-558. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August,1991. Summary: Discounting for project appraisal involves comparison of or various options. It is not like discounting of loans. The first one is permissible and second one is prohibited. The most appropriate rate of discount is the expected rate of return on investment in the private sector. But for public sector projects, the objectives of Shari’ah will also have to be kept in view. Social benefits within the overall framework of Shari’ah will be aim of discounting (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZARQA, M. ANAS, "Comments on Sami al-Suwailem's paper: Towards an Objective Measure of Gharar in Exchange," Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (7:1-2), Oct 1999-April 2000, pp. 103-107. Summary: Incisive comments on Sami Suwailem's paper published in the same issue. Thinks that the author's conclusion about insurance is not correct. Digresses into a few highly insightful observations relating risk and compensation of risk (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZARQA, M. ANAS, "Consumer Behavior in an Islamic Economy", in   Monzer  Kahf (ed. ), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, 1998, pp. 371-380. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5 August 1991. Summary: Argues that the consumer behavior theory is insufficient to explain the behavior of Muslim consumer. Suggests  that  the  Islamic  injunctions  related  to  consumption should  be integrated within a socio-legal behavioral framework. Recommends empirical study of the Muslim behavior.

ZARQA, M. ANAS, “Methodology of Islamic Economics", in Monzer Kahf (ed.), Lessons in Islamic Economics, Vol.1, Jeddah: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, 1998, pp. 129-140. Presented to the Seminar on Teaching Islamic Economics at University Level held at Dhaka during 23 July to 5August 1991. Summary: Islamic economics relies on normative and positive methods of analysis. The conventional economics claims to be positive but has strands of normative thought. However, it does not make its normative content explicit. Islamic economics explicitly makes normative and positive assumption clear (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZARQA, MUHAMMAD ANAS, "Istisna' Financing of Infrastructure Projects,"Islamic Economic Studies, Jeddah, (4:2), May 1997, pp. 67-74. Summary: Projects that do not generate explicit income cannot be possibly financed  on profit-sharing basis. A suitable interest-free alternative method of financing is presented here, based on istisna' sale contract. Various aspects of using istisna' as a financing tool for infrastructural projects are  discussed, including (a) the illiquidity of the resulting financial claims and its implications, (b) suitability for financial intermediaries, and (c) the possibility of indexation of the resulting financial claims and their use as a monetary (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Zayas, Farishta G. de, (1960), The Law and Philosophy of Zakah, Damascus: Al-Jadidah Press, 420 p.

Zayas, Farishta G. de, (1967), “The Lands, Kharaj Lands and the Land of Zakat,” Islamic Literature, Lahore, Vol. 13, No. 5, May, pp. 5-9.

Zayas, Farishta G. de, (1969), “The Functional Role of Zakat in the Islamic Social Economy,” Islamic Literature, Lahore, Vol. 15, No. 3, March, pp. 5-10.

ZAYAS, FARISHTA G. DE, “Considerations on Ghazzali’s Pragmatical and Mystical Approach to Zakah”, in Mihrajan al Ghazali, Cairo: al Majlis al Ala, pp. 271-275.

Zein al-Abidin, al-Tayib, (1997), “Zakat and Alleviation of Poverty in the Muslim World”, Hamdard Islamicus (Karachi), Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 65-82.

ZEIN, S. ATEF, el-, Islam and Human Ideology, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996, 375 pp. Summary: Translation and notes by el-Sayed M. H. Omran from the Arabic edition published in 1989 in Lebanon. Traverses a wide range of subjects like, p roperty rights, forms of business organizations, contracts, interest, inflation, stock exchange, speculation, role of government, taxes, zakah, etc. On all these subjects presents a legal point of view which is mostly orthodox (Muhammad Akram Khan).

Zero, Muhammad bin Jamil, (1996), “The Book of Zakat”, in: The Pillars of Islam and Iman, Riyadh, Darus Salam Publications, pp. 159-80.

ZIADEH, NICHOLA, Al Hisbah and Al Muhtasib in Islam, Beirut, Catholic Press, 1962.

Ziauddin Ahmad, (a) ‘Prohibition of interest in Islam’  in ‘Banking & Finance: Islamic Concept’, edited by Mukhtar Zaman, IAIB, Karachi (March 1993); (b)  ‘The Present State of Islamic Finance Movement’, International  Institute  of  Islamic  Economics,  Islamabad,  1985;  (c) ‘Some   Misgivings   About   Islamic   Interest   Free   Banking,   IIIE, Islamabad, 1985.

Ziauddin Ahmad, Munawar Iqbal and M. Fahim Khan, (Ed.) (1983); ‘Money and Banking in Islam’, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, and Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.

ZIAUDDIN, M., "Blueprint for an Islamic Financial System", New Horizon, London, (67), Sept 1997, pp. 8-9. Summary: A summary of the report submitted by the International Islamic University Islamabad to the Commission for Islamization of Economy, Pakistan in July 1987. Some of the interesting ideas are as follows: a) The country should be on a flexible exchange rate system with fully convertible currency. b) The Shari’ah rule relating to bai’ al-sarf do not apply to the present day paper currency. c) Forward trading of currencies does not violate the Shari’ah. d) The exporter or his bank can sell their collection rights against cash payments like bai' mu’ajjal based tradable securities. To this extent, the bills of exchange are tradable instruments (Muhammad Akram Khan).

ZIAUL  HAQ,  “The  Theory  of  Primitive  Tenures  According  to    Muslim Government”, Unpublished Mimeo. Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1976.

ZIAUL  HAQ,  Landlord and Peasant in Early Islam, Islamabad:   Islamic Research Institute, 1977, 410 p.

ZIAUL HAQ, “Origin and Development of Ottoman Timar System”,   Islamic Studies, Islamabad, Summer 1976, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 123-34.

ZIAUL HAQ, “The Nature of Riba al Nasia and Riba al Fadl”, Islamic Studies, 1982, Vol. 21. No. 4, pp. 19-38.

Zohurul-Islam, M. (1982), “The Zakah Ordinance – A Few Observations”, Thought on Economics, Dhaka, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 30-32.

Zohurul-Islam, M., (1986), “Abstract of the Socio-Economic Analysis of al-Zakat”, Thought on Economics, Dhaka, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 55-6.

Zohurul-Islam, Mohammad, (1988), “The Socio-economic Analysis of al-Zakah: Its Significance in Qualifying the Community Life of Islam,” in: Ahmad Salahuddin, Zakat and Ushr: Socio-Econo Administrative Implications, Dhaka, Islamic Economic Research Bureau, pp. 1-29.

Zubair   Iqbal   and   Abbas   Mirakhor   (1987),   ‘Islamic   Banking’ Occasional Paper 49, International Monetary Fund, Washington D.C.

Zysow, A. (2002), ”Zakat” in: the Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden, E. J.Brill, (New Edition), vol. xi, pp.403-422.